Arendt, Colleen, Megan LaFleche, and Mary Alice Limperopulos. “A Qualitative Meta-Analysis of Apologia, Image Repair, and Crisis Communication: Implications for Theory and Practice.” Public Relations Review 43, no. 3 (September 2017): 517–26. doi:10.1016/j.pubrev.2017.03.005.

Benoit, William L, and Susan L. Brinson. "AT&T: 'Apologies are not Enough'." Communication Quarterly 42 (1994): 75-88.

Blair, Carole. "From 'All the President's Men' to Every Man for Himself: The Strategies of Post-Watergate Apologia." Central States Speech Journal 35 (1984): 250-260.

Blaney, Joseph R. “Restoring the Juridical Image: Apologia for Ex Corde Ecclesiae.” Journal of Communication & Religion 24, no. 1 (March 2001): 94–109.

Borden, SandraL. “Press Apologias: A New Paradigm for the New Transparency?” Journal of Mass Media Ethics 27, no. 1 (January 24, 2012): 15–30. doi:10.1080/08900523.2012.636246.

Burkholder, Thomas R. "Symbolic Martydom: The Ultimate Apology." Southern Communication Journal 56 (1990): 289-297.

Brown, Gwen. "Jerry Fallwell and the PTL: The Rhetoric of Apologia." Journal of Communication and Religion 14 (1991): 9-18.

Butler, Sherry Devereaux. "The Apologia, 1971 Genre." Southern Speech Communication Journal 37 (1971): 281-289.

Carcasson, Martin, and James Arnt Aune. "Klansman on the Court: Justice Hugo Black's 1937 Radio Address." Quarterly Journal of Speech 89 (2003): 154-170.

Downey, Sharon D. "The Evolution of the Rhetorical Genre of Apologia." Western Journal of Communication 57 (1993): 42-64.

Edwards, Jason A. “Community-Focused Apologia in International Affairs: Japanese Prime Minister Tomiichi Murayama’s Apology.” Howard Journal of Communications 16, no. 4 (October 2005): 317–36. doi:10.1080/10646170500326590.

Gold, Ellen Reid. "Political Apologia: The Ritual of Self-Defense." Communication Monographs 45 (1978): 306-316.

Gronbeck, Bruce E. "Underestimating Generic Expectations: Clinton's Apologies of August 17, 1998." American Communication Journal 2.2 (February 1999). 27 Jul. 2002. http://acjournal.org/holdings/vol2/Iss2/editorials/gronbeck/index.html.

Harrell, Jackson, B. L. Ware, and Wil A. Linkugel. "Failure of Apology in American Politics: Nixon on Watergate." Communication Monographs 42 (1975): 245-261.

Hatch, John B. “Beyond Apologia: Racial Reconciliation and Apologies for Slavery.” Western Journal of Communication 70, no. 3 (July 2006): 186–211. doi:10.1080/10570310600843496.

Holling, Michelle A., Dreama G. Moon, and Alexandra Jackson Nevis. “Racist Violations and Racializing Apologia in a Post-Racism Era.” Journal of International & Intercultural Communication 7, no. 4 (October 2014): 260–86. doi:10.1080/17513057.2014.964144.

Hoover, Judith D. "Big Boys Don't Cry: The Values Constraint in Apologia." Southern Communication Journal 54 (1988): 235-252.

Huxman, Susan Schultz, and Denice Beatty Bruce. "Toward a Dynamic Generic Framework of Apologia: A Case Study of Dow Chemical, Vietnam, and the Napalm Controversy." Communication Studies 46 (1995): 57-72.

Janssen, ClaudiaI. “Addressing Corporate Ties to Slavery: Corporate Apologia in a Discourse of Reconciliation.” Communication Studies 63, no. 1 (January 2012): 18–35. doi:10.1080/10510974.2011.627974.

Jerome, Angela M., and Mattie Russell. “The Rhetoric of Sorrow: A Subgenre of Organizational Apologia.” Western Journal of Communication 82, no. 5 (October 2018): 537–53. doi:10.1080/10570314.2018.1440000.

Kahl, Mary. "Blind Ambition Culminates in Lost Honor: A Comparative Analysis of John Dean's Apologetic Strategies." Central States Speech Journal 35 (1984): 239-250.

Katula, Richard A. "The Apology of Richard M. Nixon." Communication Quarterly 23 (1975): 1-5.

Kent, Michael L., and Brandon C. Boatwright. “Ritualistic Sacrifice in Crisis Communication: A Case for Eliminating Scapegoating from the Crisis/Apologia Lexicon.” Public Relations Review 44, no. 4 (November 2018): 514–22. doi:10.1016/j.pubrev.2018.06.006.

King, Robert L. "Transforming Scandal into Tragedy: A Rhetoric of Political Apology." Quarterly Journal of Speech 71 (1985): 289-301.

Kramer, Michael R., and Kathryn M. Olson. "The Strategic Potential of Sequencing Apologia Stases: President Clinton's Self-Defense in the Monica Lewinsky Scandal." Western Journal of Communication 66 (2002): 347-368.

Kruse, Noreen Wales. "Apologia in Team Sport." Quarterly Journal of Speech 67 (1981): 270-283.

Lessl, Thomas. “Apologia Ad Hominem.” Journal of Communication & Religion 41, no. 3 (Fall 2018): 5–13.

Mazer, J. P. (2013) ‘From Apologia to Farewell: Dan Rather, CBS News, and Image Restoration Following the 60 Minutes “Memogate” Scandal’, Ohio Communication Journal, 51, pp. 168–184.

Milford, Mike. “Rhetorical Emancipation: Apologia and Transcendence on Death Row.” Western Journal of Communication 83, no. 3 (May 2019): 326–44. doi:10.1080/10570314.2018.1562563.

Mueller II, Alfred G. “Affirming Denial through Preemptive Apologia: The Case of The Armenian Genocide Resolution.” Western Journal of Communication 68, no. 1 (Winter 2004): 24–44. doi:10.1080/10570310409374787.

Prasch, Allison M. “Retelling Watergate: Apologia, Political Eulogy, and Richard Nixon’s ‘Final Campaign.’” Southern Communication Journal 80, no. 4 (September 2015): 271–92. doi:10.1080/1041794X.2015.1045622.

Riley, Catherine L. “When Cows Talk: The Happy California Cow Campaign as Visual Apologia.” Argumentation & Advocacy 51, no. 4 (Spring 2015): 273–89. doi:10.1080/00028533.2015.11821854.

Rosenfield, Lawrence W. "August 9, 1974: The Victimage of Richard Nixon." Communication Quarterly 24 (1976): 19-23.

Rosenfield, Lawrence W. "A Case Study in Speech Criticism: The Nixon-Truman Analog." Communication Monographs 35 (1968): 435-450.

Ryan, Halford Ross. "Baldwin vs. Edward VIII: A Case Study in Kategoria and Apologia." Southern Speech Communication Journal 49 (1983): 125-134.

Ryan, Halford Ross. "Kategoria and Apologia: On Their Rhetorical Criticism as a Speech Set." Quarterly Journal of Speech 68 (1982): 254-261.

Short, C. Brant. "Comic Book Apologia: The 'Paranoid' Rhetoric of Congressman George Hansen." Western Journal of Speech Communication 51 (1987): 189-203.

Smith, J. Scott. “‘Convenience,’ ‘Short-Circuited,’ and an October Surprise: An Analysis of Hillary Clinton’s Progressive Apologia during the Email Server Scandal.” Kentucky Journal of Communication 36, no. 1 (Fall 2017): 4–34.

Sohn, YJ, and Heidi Hatfield Edwards. “Strategic Ambiguity and Crisis Apologia: The Impact of Audiences’ Interpretations of Mixed Messages.” International Journal of Strategic Communication 12, no. 5 (November 2018): 552–70. doi:10.1080/1553118X.2018.1512111.

Stein, Kevin A. “Apologia, Antapologia, and the 1960 Soviet U-2 Incident.” Communication Studies 59, no. 1 (January 2008): 19–34. doi:10.1080/10510970701849362.

Stein, Kevin A., and Michael K. Ostrowsky. “‘Taco the Puppy Is Super Sick’: Student Excuses as a Unique Form of Apologia Rhetoric.” Relevant Rhetoric: A New Journal of Rhetorical Studies 7 (Spring 2016): 1–19.

Theye, Kirsten. “Shoot, I’m Sorry: An Examination of Narrative Functions and Effectiveness within Dick Cheney’s Hunting Accident Apologia.” Southern Communication Journal 73, no. 2 (March 2008): 160–77.

Vartabedian, Robert A. "Nixon's Vietnam Rhetoric: A Case Study of Apologia as Generic Paradox." Southern Communication Journal 50 (1985): 366-381.

Ware, B. L., and Wil A. Linkugel. "They Spoke in Defense of Themselves: On the Generic Criticism of Apologia." Quarterly Journal of Speech 59 (1973): 273-283.

Watt, Sarah Stone. “A Postfeminist Apologia: Susan G. Komen for the Cure’s Evolving Response to the Planned Parenthood Controversy.” Journal of Contemporary Rhetoric 2, no. 3/4 (September 2012): 65–79.

Wilson, Gerald L. "A Strategy of Explanation: Richard M. Nixon's August 8, 1974, Resignation Address." Communication Quarterly 24 (1976): 14-20.

Unless otherwise stated, the content of this page is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License