Civil Rights Sources

This bibliography should be comprehensive in articles in rhetoric/ communication on the subject of race rhetoric and the rhetoric of civil rights in America after the Civil War; and selective in books and articles from other disciplines.

Sources in Communication and Rhetoric

Antczak, Frederick J. "When 'Silence is Betrayal': An Ethical Criticism of the Revolution of Values in the Speech at Riverside Church." Calloway-Thomas and Lucaites 127-146.

Appel, Edward C. "The Rhetoric of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.: Comedy and Context in Tragic Collision." Western Journal of Communication 61 (1997): 376-.

Asante, Molefi Keti. "Television and Black Consciousness." Journal of Communication 26 (1976): 137-141.

Benson, Thomas W. "Rhetoric and Autobiography: The Case of Malcolm X." Quarterly Journal of Speech 60 (1974): 1-13.

Bosmajian, Haig A., and Hamida Bosmajian. The Rhetoric of the Civil-Rights Movement. New York: Random House, 1969.

Branham, Robert. "I Was Gone On Debating: Malcolm X's Prison Debates and Public Confrontations." Argumentation and Advocacy 31 (1996): 117-123.

Brockriede, Wayne E., and Robert L. Scott. "Stokely Carmichael: Two Speeches on Black Power." Communication Studies 19 (1968): 3-13.

Brooks, Maegan Parker. A Voice that Could Stir an Army: Fannie Lou Hamer and the Rhetoric of the Black Freedom Movement. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2014.

Brooks, Robert D. "Black Power: The Dimensions of a Slogan." Western Speech 34 (1970): 108-114.

Burgess, Parke G. "The Rhetoric of Black Power: A Moral Demand?" Quarterly Journal of Speech 54 (1968): 122-133.

Calloway-Thomas, Carolyn, and John Louis Lucaites, eds. Martin Luther King, Jr., and the Sermonic Power of Public Discourse. Tuscaloosa: U of Alabama P, 1993.

Campbell, Finley. "Voices of Thunder, Voices of Rage: A Symbolic Analysis of a Selection from Malcolm X's Speech, 'Message to the Grass Roots'." Communication Education 19 (1970): 101-110.

Campbell, Karlyn Kohrs. "The Rhetoric of Black Nationalism: A Case Study in Self-Conscious Criticism." Central States Speech Journal 22 (1971): 151-160.

Carson, Clayborne "Martin Luther King, Jr.: Charismatic Leadership in a Mass Struggle." Journal of American History 74 (1987): 436-481.

Clark, E. Culpepper. "The American Dilemma in King's 'Letter from Birmingham Jail.'" Calloway-Thomas and Lucaites 33-39.

Colaiaco, James A. "The American Dream Unfulilled: Martin Luther King, Jr., and the 'Letter from Birmingham Jail.'" Phylon 45 (1984): 1-18.

Colaiaco, James A. "Martin Luther King, Jr., and the Paradox of Nonviolent Direct Action." Phylon 47 (1986): 16-28.

Cook, Anthoney E. "Beyond Critical Legal Studies: The Reconstructive Theology of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr." Harvard Law Review 103 (1990): 985-1040.

Cox, J. Robert. "The Fulfillment of Time: King's "I Have a Dream" Speech (August 28, 1963). Texts in Context: Critical Dialogues on Significant Episodes in American Political Rhetoric. Ed. Michael C. Leff and Fred J. Kauffeld. Davis, CA: Hermagoras Press, 1989. 181-204.

Dickins, Milton, and Ruth E. Schwartz. "Oral Argument Before the Supreme Court: Marshall v. Davis in the School Segregation Cases." Quarterly Journal of Speech 57 (1971): 32-42.

Digby-Junger, Richard. "The Guardian, Crisis, Messenger, and Negro World: The Early-20th-Century Black Radical Press." Howard Journal of Communications 9 1998): 263-282.

Dionisopoulos, George N., et al. "Martin Luther King, the American Dream, and Vietnam: A Collision of Rhetorical Trajectories." Western Journal of Communication 56 (1992): 91-107.

Domke, David. "The Press and 'Delusive Theories of Equality and Fraternity' in the Age of Emancipation." Critical Studies in Mass Communication 13 (1996): 228 - 250.

—-. "The Press, Race Relations, and Social Change." Journal of Communication 51 (2001): 317-344.

Durham, Frank D. "Anti-Communism, Race, and Structuration: Newspaper Coverage of the Labor and Desegregation Movements in the South, 1932-40 and 1953-61." Journalism & Communication Monographs 4 (2002): 48-107.

Flynt, Wayne. "The Ethics of Democratic Persuasion and the Birmingham Crisis." Southern Speech Journal 35 (1969): 40-53.

Fulkerson, Richard P. "The Public Letter as a Rhetorical Form: Structure, Logic, and Style in King's 'Letter from Birmingham Jail.'" Quarterly Journal of Speech 65 (1979): 121-136.

Gaipa, Mark. "'A Creative Psalm of Brotherhood': The (De)constructive Play in Martin Luther King's 'Letter from Birmingham Jail'." Quarterly Journal of Speech 93/1 (2007): 279-307.

Gallagher, Victoria J. "Black Power in Berkeley: Postmodern Constructions in the Rhetoric of Stokely Carmichael." Quarterly Journal of Speech 87 (2001): 144-157.

Gallagher, Victoria, and Kenneth S. Zagacki. "Visibility and Rhetoric: The Power of Visual Images in Norman Rockwell's Depictions of Civil Rights." Quarterly Journal of Speech 91/2 (2005): 175-200.

Garrow, David J. "King's Plagiarism: Imitation, Insecurity, and Transformation." Journal of American History 78 (1991): 86-92.

Gregg, Richard B., Jackson McCormack, and Douglas J. Pedersen. "The Rhetoric of Black Power: A Street Level Interpretation." Quarterly Journal of Speech 42 (1969): 151-160.

Gresson, Aaron D. "Minority Epistemology and the Rhetoric of Creation." Philosophy and Rhetoric 10 (1977): 244-262.

Hariman, Robert. "Time and the Reconstitution of Gradualism in King's Address: A Response to Cox." Texts in Context: Critical Dialogues on Significant Episodes in American Political Rhetoric. Ed. Michael C. Leff and Fred J. Kauffeld. Davis, CA: Hermagoras Press, 1989. 205-217.

Harris, Melissa Renee, and Ashley R. Hall. "My Living Shall Not Be in Vain": The Rhetorical Power of Eulogies in the Face of Civil Unrest." Journal Of Contemporary Rhetoric 8, no. 3 (July 2018): 173-183.

Harris, Thomas E., & Patrick C. Kennicott. "Booker T. Washington: A Study of Conciliatory Rhetoric." Southern Communication Journal 37 (1971): 47-59.

Harrison, Robert D., and Linda K. Harrison. "The Call from the Mountaintop: Call-Response and the Oratory of Martin Luther King, Jr." Calloway-Thomas and Lucaites 162-178.

Heath, Robert L. "Dialectical Confrontation: A Strategy of Black Radicalism." Central States Speech Journal 24 (1973): 168-177.

—-. "A Time for Silence: Booker T. Washington in Atlanta." Quarterly Journal of Speech 64 (1978): 385-399.

Himmelstein, Jerry. "Rhetorical Continuities in the Politics of Race: The Closed Society Revisited." Southern Speech Communication Journal 48 (1982): 153-166.

Hoover, Judith D. "Reconstruction of the Rhetorical Situation in 'Letter from Birmingham Jail.'" Calloway-Thomas and Lucaites 50-65.

Holmes, D. G., (2007). Affirmative reaction: Kennedy, Nixon, King, and the evolution of color-blind rhetoric. Rhetoric Review, 26, 25 – 41.

Houck, Davis W., and David E. Dixon. Rhetoric, Religion and the Civil Rights Movement, 1954-1965. Waco, Tex: Baylor University Press, 2006.

Hunsaker, David M. "The Rhetoric of Brown V. Board of Education: Paradigm for Contemporary Social Protest." Southern Speech Communication Journal 43 (1977): 91-109.

Jensen, Richard J., and John C. Hammerback. "'Your Tools Are Really the People': The Rhetoric of Robert Parris Moses." Communication Monographs 65 (1998): 126-140.

Johannesen, Richard L. "The Ethics of Plagiarism Reconsidered: The Oratory of Martin Luther King, Jr." Southern Communication Journal 60 (1995): 185-

Kalenga, Maulana. "The Oppositional Logic of Malcolm X: Differentiation, Engagement and Resistance." Western Journal of Black Studies 17 (1993): 6-17.

Kennicott, Patrick C., and Wayne E. Page. "H. Rap Brown: The Cambridge Incident." Quarterly Journal of Speech 57 (1971): 325-334.

Klein, Mia. "The Other Beauty of Martin Luther King's 'Letter from Birmingham Jail.'" College Composition and Communication 32 (1981): 30-37.

Larson, Charles U. "The Trust Establishing Function of the Rhetoric of Black Power." Central States Speech Journal 21 (1970): 52-56.

Lee, Ronald L. "The Rhetorical Construction of Time in Martin Luther King's 'Letter from Birmingham Jail.'" Southern Communication Journal 56 (1991): 279-288.

Lucaites, John Louis, and Celeste Michelle Condit. "Malcolm X and the Limits of the Rhetoric of Revolutionary Dissent." Journal of Black Studies 23 (1993): 291-314.

—-. "Reconstructing <Equality>: Culturetypal and Counter-Cultural Rhetorics in the Martyred Black Vision." Communication Monographs 57 (1990): 5-24.

—-. "Universalizing 'Equality': The Public Legacy of Martin Luther King, Jr. Calloway-Thomas and Lucaites 85-103.

Lynch, Christopher. "Reaffirmation of God's Anointed Prophet: The Use of Chiasm in Martin Luther King's "Mountaintop" Speech." Howard Journal of Communication 6 (1995): 12-31.

McEdwards, Mary. "Agitative Rhetoric: Its Nature And Effect." Western Journal of Communication 32 (1968): 36-43.

McPhail, Mark. "Passionate Intensity: Louis Farrakhan and the Fallacies of Racial Reasoning." Quarterly Journal of Speech 84 (1998): 416-489.

Meckiffe, Donald, and Matthew Murray. "Radio and the Black Soldier during World War II." Critical Studies in Mass Communication 15 (1998): 337-356.

Miller, Keith D. "Alabama as Egypt: Martin Luther King, Jr., and the Religion of Slaves." Calloway-Thomas and Lucaites 18-32.

—-. "Composing Martin Luther King, Jr." Publications of the Modern Languages Association 105 (1990): 70-82.

—-. "Martin Luther King, Jr., and the Black Folk Pulpit." Journal of American History 78 (1991): 120-123.

—-. "Martin Luther King, Jr., Borrows a Revolution." College English 48 (1986): 249-265.

—-. "Voice Merging and Self-Making: The Epistemology of 'I Have a Dream.'" Rhetoric Society Quarterly 19 (1989): 23-52.

Morris, A. "Black Southern Student Sit-In Movement: An Analysis of Internal Organization." American Sociological Review 46 (1981): 744-767.

—-. The Origins of the Civil Rights Movement. New York: Free Press, 1984.

Mott, Wesley T. "The Rhetoric of Martin Luther King, Jr.: Letter from Birmingham Jail." Phylon 36 (1975): 411-421.

Murphy, John M. "Domesticating dissent: The Kennedys and the Freedom Rides." Communication Monographs 59 (1992): 61-78.

—-. "Inventing Authority: Bill Clinton, Martin Luther King, Jr., and the Orchestration of Rhetorical Traditions." Quarterly Journal of Speech 83 (1997): 71-89.

Osborn, Michael. "The Last Mountaintop of Martin Luther King, Jr." Calloway-Thomas and Lucaites 147-161.

Nero, Charles I. "Clarence Pendleton and the Rhetoric of Paradox." Howard Journal of Communications 3/3-4 (1991): 204-217.

Osborn, Michael, and John Bakke. "The Melodramas of Memphis: Contending Narratives during the Sanitation Strike of 1968." Southern Communication Journal 63 (1998): 220-234.

Parker, Maegan. "Ironic Openings: The Interpretive Challenge of the 'Black Manifesto'." Quarterly Journal of Speech 94/3 (2008): 320-342.

Parry-Giles, Trevor. "Character, the Constitution, and the Ideological Embodiment of "Civil Rights" in the 1967 Nomination of Thurgood Marshall to the Supreme Court." Quarterly Journal of Speech 82 (1996): 364-382.

Patton, John H. "'I Have a Dream': The Performance of Theology Fused with the Power of Orality." Calloway-Thomas and Lucaites 104-126.

Pauley, Garth. "John Lewis's 'Serious Revolution': Rhetoric, Resistance, and Revision at the March on Washington." Quarterly Journal of Speech 84 (1998): 320-340.

Pauley, John L. "Reshaping Public Persona and the Prophetic Ethos: Louis Farrakhan at the Million Man March." Western Journal of Communication 62 (1998): 523-536.

Payne, James C. The Anatomy of Black Rhetoric. Tallahassee: Graphics Communication Association, 1987.

Pollock, Arthur. "Stokely Carmichael's New Black Rhetoric." Southern Speech Communication Journal 37 (1971): 92-94.

Powell, Kimberly A. "United in Gender, Divided by Race: Reconstruction of Issue and Identity by the Association of Southern Women for the Prevention of Lynching." Communication Studies 46 (1995): 34-44.

Prasch, Allison M. (2017). Harry S. Truman, "Address before the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People," Washington DC. Voice of Democracy, 12, 16-44.

Raum, Richard D., and James S. Measell. "Wallace and his Ways: A Study of the Rhetorical Genre of Polarization." Central States Speech Journal 25 (1974): 28-35.

Sanger, Kerran L. "Functions of Freedom Singing in the Civil Rights Movement: The Activists' Implicitly Rhetorical Theory." Howard Journal of Communications 8.2 (1997): 179-195.

Schwarz, Bill. “'Our Unadmitted Sorrow': the Rhetorics of Civil Rights Photography.” History Workshop Journal, no. 72, 2011, pp. 138–155. JSTOR.

Scott, Robert L. "Justifying Violence: The Rhetoric of Militant Black Power." Central States Speech Journal 19 (1968): 96-104.

Scott, Robert L. "Socio-Historical Perspectives of Black Oratory." Quarterly Journal of Speech 56 (1970): 264-269.

Smith, Jonathan M., and Antonio de Velasco. “Martin Luther King Jr., W.E.B. Du Bois, and Attitudes Toward Change.” Journal of Contemporary Rhetoric 8, no. 3 (July 2018): 146–56.

Snow, Malinda. "Martin Luther King's 'Letter from the Birmingham Jail' as Pauline Epistle." Quarterly Journal of Speech 71 (1985): 317-334.

Solomon, Martha. "Covenanted Rights: The Metaphoric Matrix of 'I Have a Dream.'" Calloway-Thomas and Lucaites 66-84.

Spilliers, Hortense J. "Martin Luther King and the Style of the Black Sermon." Black Scholar 3 (1971): 14-27.

Terrill, Robert E. "Colonizing the Borderlands: Shifting Circumference in the Rhetoric of Malcolm X." Quarterly Journal of Speech 86 (2000): 67-85.

Terrill, Robert E. Malcolm X: Inventing Radical Judgment. East Lansing: Michigan State UP, 2004.

Terrill, R. E. (2017). The post-racial and post-ethical discourse of Donald J. Trump. Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 20, 493-510.

Terrill, Robert E. "Protest, Prophecy, and Prudence in the Rhetoric of Malcolm X." Rhetoric and Public Affairs 4 (2001): 25-53.

Towns, W. Stuart. We Want our Freedom: Rhetoric of the Civil Rights Movement. Westport, Conn: Praeger, 2002.

Watts, Jerry, and Michael Dyson. "Making Malcolm: The Myth and Meaning of Malcolm X." Dissent 43 (1996): 114-119.

Yousman, Bill. "Who Owns Identity? Malcolm X, Representation, and the Struggle over Meaning." Communication Quarterly 49 (2001): 1-18.

Zarefsky, David. "Civil Rights and Civil Conflict: Presidential Communication in Crisis." Central States Speech Journal 34 (1983): 59-66.

History and Biography

Branch, Taylor. At Canaan's Edge: America in the King Years 1965-1968. New York: Simon & Schuster 2006.

—-. Parting the Waters: America in the King Years 1954-63. New York: Simon & Schuster 1989.

—-. Pillar of Fire: America in the King Years 1963-65. New York: Simon & Schuster 1999.

Harlan, Louis R. Booker T. Washington: The Wizard of Tuskegee. New York: Oxford University Press, 1983.

Hine, Darlene Clark, ed. Ida B. Wells-Barnett: An Exploratory Study of an American Black Woman, 1893-1930. Black Women in United States History. Brooklyn: Carlson Publishing Inc, 1990.

Sales, William. From Civil Rights to Black Liberation: Malcolm X and the Organization of Afro-American Unity. Boston, MA: South End Press, c1994.

Van Deburg, William. New Day in Babylon: The Black Power Movement and American Culture, 1965-1975.

Selected Primary Texts

Cleaver, Eldridge. Soul on Ice. 1968. Pref. Ishmael Reed. New York: Dell, 1992.

King, Martin Luther. Testament of Hope: The Essential Writings and Speeches of Martin Luther King, Jr. Ed. James M. Washington. San Francisco: Harper, 1991.

Smith, Arthur L. The Rhetoric of Black Revolution. Boston: Allyn & Bacon, 1969.

Smith, Arthur L., and Stephen Robb. The Voice of Black Rhetoric. Boston: Allyn & Bacon, 1971.

Storing, Herbert. What Country Have I?: Political Writings by Black Americans. New York: St. Martin's P, 1970.

X, Malcolm. Malcolm X Speaks: Selected Speeches and Statements. Ed. George Brietman. New York: Pathfinder P, 1989.

X, Malcolm, with Alex Haley. The Autobiography of Malcolm X. 1965. New York: Ballantine Books, 1992.

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