Malcolm X: Rhetorical Sources

This bibliography includes sources about Malcolm X's rhetoric, philosophy, and political thought.


Adeleke, Tunde. Africa in Black Liberation Activism: Malcolm X, Stokely Carmichael and Walter Rodney. Vol. 24. London: Routledge, 2017;2016;. doi:10.4324/9781315409313.

Ambar, Saladin. Malcolm X at Oxford Union: Racial Politics in a Global Era. US: Oxford University Press, 2014.

Benson, Thomas W. "Rhetoric and Autobiography: The Case of Malcolm X." Quarterly Journal of Speech 60 (1974): 1-13.

Branham, Robert. "I Was Gone On Debating: Malcolm X's Prison Debates and Public Confrontations." Argumentation and Advocacy 31 (1996): 117-123.

Byrd, Dustin and Seyed Javad Miri. Malcolm X: From Political Eschatology to Religious Revolutionary. Leiden: BRILL, 2016.

Campbell, Finley. "Voices of Thunder, Voices of Rage: A Symbolic Analysis of a Selection from Malcolm X's Speech, 'Message to the Grass Roots'." Communication Education 19 (1970): 101-110.

Carson, Clayborne, David Gallen, and Spike Lee. Malcolm X: The FBI File. New York: Skyhorse Publishing, 2012.

DeCaro, Louis A. On the Side of My People: A Religious Life of Malcolm X. New York: NYU Press, 1995;1997;.

Edozie, Rita Kiki and Curtis Stokes. Malcolm X's Michigan Worldview: An Exemplar for Contemporary Black Studies. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 2015. doi:10.14321/j.ctt13x0p7v. (collection of essays by various authors).

Hart, William David. Black Religion: Malcolm X, Julius Lester, and Jan Willis. 1st ed. GB: Springer Nature, 2008.

Kalenga, Maulana. "The Oppositional Logic of Malcolm X: Differentiation, Engagement and Resistance." Western Journal of Black Studies 17 (1993): 6-17.

Lucaites, John Louis, and Celeste Michelle Condit. "Malcolm X and the Limits of the Rhetoric of Revolutionary Dissent." Journal of Black Studies 23 (1993): 291-314.

Lukmaan Hakim Khan Seekdaur. Malcolm X: The Pragmatic Nationalist. DE: Anchor Academic Publishing, 2014.

Sales, William. From Civil Rights to Black Liberation: Malcolm X and the Organization of Afro-American Unity. Boston, MA: South End Press, c1994.

Terrill, Robert E. "Colonizing the Borderlands: Shifting Circumference in the Rhetoric of Malcolm X." Quarterly Journal of Speech 86 (2000): 67-85.

Terrill, Robert E. Malcolm X: Inventing Racial Judgment. Michigan State University Press, 2004. doi:10.14321/j.ctt163t7zd.

Terrill, Robert E. "Protest, Prophecy, and Prudence in the Rhetoric of Malcolm X." Rhetoric and Public Affairs 4 (2001): 25-53.

Tuck, Stephen. The Night Malcolm X Spoke at the Oxford Union: A Transatlantic Story of Antiracial Protest University of California Press, 2014.

Watts, Jerry, and Michael Dyson. "Making Malcolm: The Myth and Meaning of Malcolm X." Dissent 43 (1996): 114-119.

Yousman, Bill. "Who Owns Identity? Malcolm X, Representation, and the Struggle over Meaning." Communication Quarterly 49 (2001): 1-18.

Unless otherwise stated, the content of this page is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License