Metaphor: Sources

This bibliography aspires to be comprehensive in rhetorical theory and criticism and selective from general sources and sources in other fields.

Selected General Works on Metapor

Barfield, Owen. Poetic Diction: A Study in Meaning. 2nd ed. Hanover, NH: Wesleyan UP, 1973.

Black, Max. Models and Metaphors. New York: Cornell, 1962.

Lakoff, George and Mark Johnson. Metaphors We Live By. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1980.

Pepper, Stephen C. World Hypotheses: A Study in Evidence. Los Angeles: U of California P, 1942.

Richards, I. A. The Philosophy of Rhetoric. New York: Oxford Press, 1936.

Ricoeur, Paul. The Rule of Metaphor: Multi-disciplinary Studies of the Creation of Meaning in Language. Toronto: U of Toronto P, 1977.

Turner, Victor. Dramas, Fields and Metaphors: Symbolic Action in Human Society. Ithaca: Cornell UP, 1974.

White, Hayden. Metahistory: The Historical Imagination in Nineteenth-Century Europe. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 1973.

References in Rhetorical Theory and Criticism

Adams, John Charles. "Linguistic Values and Religious Experiences: An Analysis of Clothing Metaphors in Alexander Richardson's Ramist-Puritan Lectures on Speech, 'Speech is a garment to cloath our reason'." Quarterly Journal of Speech 76 (1990): 58-68.

Aden, Roger C. "Back to the Garden: Therapeutic Place Metaphor in Field of Dreams." Southern Communication Journal 59 (1993): 307-317.

—-. "Entrapment and Escape: Inventional Metaphors in Ronald Reagan's Economic Rhetoric." Southern Communication Journal 54 (1988): 384-400.

Aden, Roger C., and Christina L. Reynolds. "Lost and Found in America: The Function of Place Metaphor in Sports Illustrated." Southern Communication Journal 59 (1993): 1-14.

Akioye, Akin A. "The Rhetorical Construction of Radical Africanism at the United Nations: Metaphoric Cluster as Strategy." Discourse and Society 5 (1991): 7-31.

Ausmus, William A. "Pragmatic Uses of Metaphor: Models and Metaphor in the Nuclear Winter Scenario." Communication Monographs 65 (1998): 67-82.

Barker, Simon. "Rigour or Vigour: Metaphor, Argument, and Internet." Philosophy & Rhetoric 31 (1998): 248-265.

Beer, Francis A., and Christ'l de Landtsheer, eds. Metaphorical World Politics. East Lansing: Michigan State UP, 2004.

Birdsell, David S. "Kenneth Burke at the Nexus of Argument and Trope." Argumentation and Advocacy 29 (1993): 178-185

Black, Edwin. "The Second Persona." Quarterly Journal of Speech 56 (1970): 109-119.

Bontekoe, Ron. "The Function of Metaphor." Philosophy and Rhetoric 20 (1987): 209-226.

Borisoff, Deborah, and Dan F. Hahn. "Thinking with the Body: Sexual Metaphors." Communication Quarterly 41 (1993): 253-260.

Brown, Richard Harvey. "Rhetoric and the Science of History: The Debate Between Evolutionism and Empiricism as a Conflict in Metaphors." Quarterly Journal of Speech 72 (1986): 148-161.

Bryan, Ferald J. "Vico on Metaphor: Implications for Rhetorical Criticism." Philosophy and Rhetoric 19 (1986): 255-265.

Campbell, Paul Newell. "Metaphor and Linguistic Theory." Quarterly Journal of Speech 61 (1975): 1-12.

Caraher, Brian G. "Metaphor as Contradiction: A Grammar and Epistemology of Poetic Metaphor." Philosophy and Rhetoric 14 (1981): 69-88.

Carpenter, Ronald H. "America's Tragic Metaphor: Our Twentieth-Century Combatants as Frontiersmen." Quarterly Journal of Speech 76 (1990): 1-22.

Condit, Celeste M., et al. "Recipes or Blueprints for Our Genes? How Contexts Selectively Activate the Multiple Meanings of Metaphors." Quarterly Journal of Speech 88 (2002): 303-325.

Daughton, Suzanne M. "Metaphorical Transcendence: Images of the Holy War in Franklin Roosevelt's First Inaugural." Quarterly Journal of Speech 79 (1993): 427-446.

Dorsey, Peter A. Common Bondage: Slavery as Metaphor in Revolutionary America. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 2009.

Farrell, Thomas B., and G. Thomas Goodnight. "Accidental Rhetoric: The Root Metaphors of Three Mile Island." Communication Monographs 48 (1981): 271-300.

Fearing, Franklin. "The Problem of Metaphor." Southern Speech Journal 29 (1963): 47-55.

Fernandez, Ruby Ann, and Richard J. Jensen."Reies Lopez Tijerina's 'The Land Grant Question': Creating History through Metaphors." Howard Journal of Communications 6 (1995): 129-145.

Franke, William. "Metaphor and the Making of Sense: The Contemporary Metaphor Renaissance." Philosophy & Rhetoric 33 (2000): 137-153.

Frentz, Thomas S. "Creative Metaphors, Synchronicity, and Quantum Physics." Philosophy & Rhetoric 44/2 (2011): 101-128.

—-. "Toward a Resolution of the Generative Semantics/Classical Theory Controversy: A Psycholinguistic Analysis of Metaphor." Quarterly Journal of Speech 60 (1974): 125-133.

Fritch, John E., and Karla K. Leeper. "Poetic Logic: The Metaphoric Form as a Foundation for a Theory of Tropological Argument." Argumentation and Advocacy 29 (1993): 186-194.

Graves, Michael P. "Functions of Key Metaphors in Early Quaker Sermons, 1671-1700." Quarterly Journal of Speech 69 (1983): 364-378.

Gribbin, William. "The Juggernaut Metaphor in American Rhetoric." Quarterly Journal of Speech 59 (1973): 297-303.

Griffin, Leland M. "The Edifice Metaphor in Rhetorical Theory." Speech Monographs 27 (1960): 279-292.

Gross, Alan G. "Lincoln's Use of Constitutive Metaphors." Rhetoric & Public Affairs, vol. 7 no. 2, 2004, pp. 173-189.

Halloran, Stephen M. "Language and the Absurd." Philosophy and Rhetoric 6 (1973): 97-108.

Hardy-Short, Dayle C., and C. Brant Short."Fire, Death, and Rebirth: A Metaphoric Analysis of the 1988 Yellowstone Fire Debate." Western Journal of Communication 59 (1995): 103-125.

Hastings, Arthur. "Metaphor in Rhetoric." Western Speech 34 (1970): 181-194.

Hausman, Carl R. "Language and Metaphysics: The Ontology of Metaphor." Philosophy and Rhetoric 24 (1991): 25-42.

Heckman, Peter. "Nietzsche's Clever Animal: Metaphor in 'Truth and Falsity'." Philosophy and Rhetoric 24 (1991): 301-321.

Hidalgo-Serna, Emilio. "Metaphorical Language, Rhetoric, and Comprehensio: J. L. Vives and M. Nizolio." Philosophy and Rhetoric 23 (1990): 1-11.

Hymers, Michael. "Metaphor, Cognitivity, and Meaning-Holism." Philosophy & Rhetoric 31 (1998): 266-282.

Ivie, Robert L. "Fire, Flood, and Red Fever: Motivating Truman Doctrine Speech." Presidential Studies Quarterly 29 (1999): 570-591.

—-. "The Ideology of Freedom's 'Fragility' in American Foreign Policy Argument." Journal of the American Forensic Association 24 (1987): 27-36.

—-. "Literalizing the Metaphor of Soviet Savagery: President Truman's Plain Style." Southern Speech Communication Journal 51 (1985): 91-105.

—-. "Metaphor and the Rhetorical Invention of Cold War 'Idealists'." Communication Monographs 54 (1987): 165-182.

—-. "The Metaphor of Force in Prowar Discourse: The Case of 1812." Quarterly Journal of Speech 68 (1982): 240-253.

Jamieson, Kathleen Hall. "The Metaphoric Cluster in the Rhetoric of Pope Paul VI and Edmund G. Brown, Jr." Quarterly Journal of Speech 66 (1980): 51-72.

Jensen, J. Vernon. "British Voices on the Eve of the American Revolution: Trapped by the Family Metaphor." Quarterly Journal of Speech 63 (1977): 43-50.

Jones, John Bush. "Impersonation and Authenticity: The Theatre as Metaphor in Kopit's Indians." Quarterly Journal of Speech 59 (1973): 443-451.

Jordan, William J., and W. Clifton Adams. "I. A. Richards' Concept of Tenor-Vehicle Interaction." Central States Speech Journal 27 (1976): 136-143.

Kaufer, David S., and Christine M. Neuwirth. "Contrasts Between Ironic and Metaphoric Understanding: An Elaboration of Booth's Observations." Western Journal of Speech Communication 47 (1983): 75-83.

Kirkwood, William G. "Parables as Metaphors and Examples." Quarterly Journal of Speech 71 (1985): 422-440.

Kuusisto, Riikka "Heroic Tale, Game, and Business Deal? Western Metaphors in Action in Kosovo." Quarterly Journal of Speech 88 (2002): 50-68.

Leeman, Richard W. "Spatial Metaphors in African-American Discourse." Southern Communication Journal 60 (1994): 165-180.

Leff, Michael. "Topical Invention and Metaphoric Interaction." Southern Speech Communication Journal 48 (1982): 214-229.

Leff, Micahel, and Andrew Sachs. "Words the Most Like Things: Iconicity and the Rhetorical Text." Western Journal of Speech Communication 54 (1990): 252-273.

Levin, Samuel R. "Aristotle's Theory of Metaphor." Philosophy and Rhetoric 15 (1982): 24-46.

Loewenberg, Ina. "Truth and Consequences of Metaphors." Philosophy and Rhetoric 6 (1973): 30-46.

Matlack, Cynthia S. "Metaphor and Dramatic Structure in The Chalk Garden." Quarterly Journal of Speech 59 (1973): 304-310.

Mechling, Elizabeth Walker, and Jay Mechling. "The Atom According to Disney." Quarterly Journal of Speech 81 (1995): 436-453.

Mumby, Dennis K., and Carole Spitzack. "Ideology and Television News: A Metaphoric Analysis of Political Stories." Central States Speech Journal 34 (1983): 162-171.

wa Mwachofi, Ngure. "Apprehending the Power and Ideological Import of Metaphor in President de Klerk's Rhetoric." Howard Journal of Communications 5 (1995): 331-352.

Myers, C. Mason. "Metaphors and the Intelligibility of Dreams." Philosophy and Rhetoric 2 (1969): 91-99.

Nothstine, W. L. "'Topics' as Ontological Metaphor in Contemporary Rhetorical Theory and Criticism." Quarterly Journal of Speech 74 (1988): 151-163.

Nuyen, A. T. "The Kantian Theory of Metaphor." Philosophy and Rhetoric 22 (1989): 95-109.

Osborn, Michael. "Archetypal Metaphor in Rhetoric: The Light-Dark Family." Quarterly Journal of Speech 53 (1967): 115-126.

—-. "The Evolution of the Archetypal Sea in Rhetoric and Poetic." Quarterly Journal of Speech 63 (1977): 347-363.

—-. "The Evolution of the Theory of Metaphor in Rhetoric." Western Speech 31 (1967): 121-131.

Osborn, Michael M., and Douglas Ehninger. "The Metaphor in Public Address." Speech Monographs 29 (1962): 223-234.

Oswald, Steve. "Metaphor as Argument: Rhetorical and Epistemic Advantages of Extended Metaphors." Argumentation 28 (2014): 133-159.

Paul, Anthony M. "Metaphor and the Bounds of Expression." Philosophy and Rhetoric 5 (1972): 143-158.

Perry, Steven. "Rhetorical Functions of the Infestation Metaphor in Hitler's Rhetoric" Central States Speech Journal 34 (1983): 229-235.

Philips, Kendall R. "A Metaphor of Controversy." Western Journal of Communication (1999): 488-510.

Rice, Donald E. "Order Out of Chaos: The Archetypal Metaphor in Early American Rhetoric." North Dakota Journal of Speech and Theatre Sep1996, Vol. 9 Issue 1, p18-24.

Rickert, William E. "Winston Churchill's Archetypal Metaphors: A Mythopoetic Translation of World War II." Central States Speech Journal 28 (1977): 106-112.

Schneider, Valerie. "Parker's Assessment of Webster: Argumentative Synthesis Through the Tragic Metaphor." Quarterly Journal of Speech 59 (1973): 330-336.

Siltanen, Susan A. "The Persuasiveness of Metaphor: A Replication and Extension." Southern Speech Communication Journal 47 (1981): 67-83.

Smith, Ruth C., and Eric M. Eisenberg. "Conflict at Disneyland: A Root-Metaphor Analysis." Communication Monographs 54 (1987): 367-380.

Solomon, Martha. "Villainless Quest: Myth, Metaphor, and Dream in 'Chariots of Fire'." Communication Quarterly 31 (1983): 274-281.

Stelzner, Hermann G. "Analysis by Metaphor." Quarterly Journal of Speech 51 (1965): 52-61.

—-. "Ford's War on Inflation: A Metaphor That Did Not Cross." Communication Monographs 44 (1977): 284-297.

Stewart, Donald. "Metaphor and Paraphrase." Philosophy and Rhetoric 4 (1971): 111-123.

Tallmon, James M. "Metaphor in William Rehnquist's Judicial Rhetoric." Free Speech Yearbook 34 (1996): 78-87.

van Teeffelen, Toine. "Racism and Metaphor: The Palestinian-Israeli Conflict in Popular Literature." Discourse and Society 5 (1994): 381-405.

Turetzky, Philip. "Metaphor and Paraphrase." Philosophy & Rhetoric 21 (1988): 205-219.

Voth, Ben "The Wall Separating Church and State: A Longitudinal Analysis of Metaphor as Argument." Argumentation & Advocacy 34 (1998): 127-139.

van Woudenberg, Rene. "Panmetaphoricism Examined." Philosophy & Rhetoric 31 (1998): 231-247.

Xu, Cihua, Chuanrui Zhang, and Yicheng Wu. "Enlarging The Scope Of Metaphor Studies." Intercultural Pragmatics 13.3 (2016): 439-447.

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