Non-Presidential Debates

This page includes political debates that are not presidential. See Presidential Debates here.


Airne, D. & Benoit, W. L. (2005). 2004 Illinois U.S. Senate debates: Keyes versus Obama. American Behavioral Scientist, 49, 343-352.

Benoit, W. L., Brazeal, L. M., & Airne, D. (2006). A functional analysis of U.S. Senate campaign debates. Unpublished manuscript.

Benoit, W., & Davis, C. (2007). Newspaper Coverage of U.S. Senate Debates. Speaker and Gavel, 44, 13-26.

Banwart, M. C., & McKinney , M. S. (2005) A gendered influence in campaign debates? Analysis of mixed-gender United States senate and gubernatorial debates. Communication Studies, 56, 353-373.

Bystrom, D., Roper, C., Gobetz, R., Massey, T., & Beall, C. (1991). The effects of a televised gubernatorial debate. Political Communication Review, 16, 57-80.

Benoit, W. L., (2007). Determinates of defense in presidential debates. Communication Research Reports, 24, 319-325. (utilizes non-president data base in the analysis)

Benoit, W. L., Brazeal, L. M., Airne, D. (2007). A functional analysis of televised U.S. Senate and Gubernatorial Campaign Debates. Argumentation & Advocacy, 44, 75-89.

Benoit, W., & Davis, C. (2007). Newspaper Coverage of U.S. Senate Debates. Speaker and Gavel, 44, 13-26.

Benoit, W. L., Henson, J. R., & Maltos, S. (2007). A functional analysis of American mayoral debates. Contemporary Argumentation and Debate, 28,v20-37.

Conrad, C. (1993). Political debates as televisual form. Argumentation and Advocacy, 30, 62-76. [Hunt-Helms 1984 NC]

Davis, J. C. (2016). A New Test of Issue Ownership Theory: U.S.Senate Campaign Debates. Speaker & Gavel, 53, 7-18.

Edelsky, C., & Adams, K. (1990). Creating inequality: Breaking the rules in debates. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 9, 171-190.

Faucheux, R. (2003). The Debate Book: Standards and guidelines for sponsoring political candidate debaters in congressional, state and local elections. Campaigns and Elections Publishing.

Hill, M. L. (2005). The relationship between candidate sex and pronoun usage in a Louisiana Governor's race. Women & Language, 28, 23-32.

Hullett, C. R., & Louden, A. D. (1998). Audience recall of issues and image in congressional debates. Argumentation and Advocacy, 34, 189-202.

Hullett, C. R., & Louden, A. D. (1998, November). Influencing audience attributions at a congressional debate. National Communication Association. Chicago, IL

Jarvis, S., & Connaughton, S. L. (2005). Audiences Implicadas e Ignoradas in the English and Spanish language 2002 Texas Gubernatorial debates. Howard Journal of Communication, 16, 131-148.

Johnson, D. A. (1996). Intertextuality in political debates: What do we need to know to understand them?

Just, M., Crigler, A., & Wallach, L. (1990). Thirty seconds or thirty minutes: What viewers learn from spot advertisements and candidate debates. Journal of Communication, 40, 120-132.

Kahn, K. F. (1994). The distorted mirror: Press coverage of women candidates for statewide office. Journal of Politics, 56, 154-173.

Kahn, K. F. (1992). Does being male help? An investigation of the effects of candidate gender and campaign coverage on evaluations of US senate candidates. Journal of politics, 54, 497-517.

Kahn, K. F., & Goldenberg, E. N (1991). Women candidates in the news: An examination of gender differences in US senate campaign coverage. Public Opinion Quarterly, 55, 180-199.

Lichtenstein, A. (1982). Differences in impact between local and national political candidates' debates. Western Journal of Speech Communication, 46, 291-298.

Louden, A. (2006). Gauging unique qualities of political debatesstate-levelevel races: The case of Montana gubernatorial and North Carolina US Senate elections (2006). In P. Riley (Ed.), Engaging argument (pp. 342-347) . Washington, DC: National Communication Association.

Louden, A. (2005). Researching non-presidential debates: A moment in Time. Contemporary Argumentation and Debate, 26, 41-50.

Marion, J. M.(2004, April). Why debate? An examination of the origins and format of campaign debates in U.S. senate elections. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the The Midwest Political Science Association, Chicago, Illinois.

McKinney , M. S., & Carlin, D. B. (2004). Political campaign debates. In L. L. Kaid (Ed.), Handbook of political communication research (pp. 203-234). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

McKown, J. (2005). Questions of practice: The 2004 South Carolina Senate Debates. Contemporary Argumentation and Debate, 26, 63-91.

Pfau, M. (1983). Criteria and format to optimize political debates: An analysis of South Dakota's election '80 series. Journal of the American Forensic Association, 19, 205-214.

Philport, J. C., & Balon, R. F. (1975). Candidate image in a broadcast debate. Journal of Broadcasting, 19, 181-193.

Prentice, C. (2005). Third party candidates in political debates: Muted groups struggling to express themselves. Speaker and Gavel, 42, 1-12.

Preston, C. T., Jr. (2005). Group affiliation, association, and dissociation in the debate between New York senatorial candidates Hillary Clinton and Rick Lazio. Contemporary Argumentation and Debate, 26, 92-105.

Orienstein, N (1987). Nonpresidential debates in America. In J. L. Swerdlow (Ed.), Presidential debates 1988 and beyond (pp. 52-61). Washington, D. C.: Congressional Quarterly.

Robertson, T. (2005). A Perfect Storm: A case study analysis of the defeat of Tom Daschle by John Thune in the 2004 South Dakota senate race. American Behavioral Scientist, 49, 326-342.

Sarkela, S. S. (2005). Lucia Cormier vs. Margaret Chase Smith: Debate for the Maine Senate Seat, November 5, 1960. Contemporary Argumentation and Debate, 26, 51-62.

Spialek, M.L., & Munz, S.M. (2014). Survival strategies in solidly partisan states an analysis of centrist appeals in 2012 U.S. Senate debates. Speaker and Gavel 51(1): 17-31.

Trent, J. S., Schmisseur, A. M., & Gauder, G. E. (2000). Debate strategies then and now: A comparative analysis of two women candidates. T. A. Hollihan (Ed.), Argument at century's end: Reflecting on the past and envisioning the future (pp. 411-418) . Annandale, VA: National Communication Association

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