Presidential Rhetoric: General and Comparative Sources

Comprehensive in Rhetoric and Communication journal literature, selective in rhetorical studies from other fields and general sources of interest to rhetoricians. For articles on individual presidents see Presidents A to Z.

Speech Collections

Waldman, M. (2003) My fellow Americans: The most important speeches of America's presidents, from George Washington to George W. Bush. Naperville, IL: Sourcebooks, Inc.

Sources in Communication and Rhetoric

Abbott, P. (1988). Do presidents talk too much? The rhetorical presidency and its alternative. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 18, 353- .

Achter, P. J. "Narrative, Intertextuality, and Apologia in Contemporary Political Scandals." Southern Communication Journal 65 (2000): 318-333.

Alisky, Marvin. "White House Wit: Presidential Humor to Sustain Policies, from Lincoln to Reagan." Presidential Studies Quarterly 20 (1990): 373-382.

Anderson, D. G. "Power, Rhetoric, and the State: A Theory of Presidential Legitimacy." Review of Politics 50 (1988): 198-214.

Anderson, Karrin Vasby. "From Spouses to Candidates: Hillary Rodham Clinton, Elizabeth Dole, and the Gendered Office of U.S. President." Rhetoric and Public Affairs 5 (2002): 105-132.

Andrade, L. M. (2003). Presidential diversionary attempts: A peaceful perspective. Congress & the Presidency; 30, 55-79.

Aune, J. A. (2008). The econo-rhetorical presidency. In J. A. Aune and M. J. Medhurst, (Eds.) The prospect of presidential rhetoric (pp. 46-68). College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press.

Aune, J. A., & Medhurst, M. J. (Eds.) (2008), The prospect of presidential rhetoric. College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press.

Aune, J. A., & Rigsby, E. D. (2005). Civil Rights rhetoric and the American presidency. College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press.

Bailey, M., Sigelman, L., & Wilcox, C. (2003). Presidential persuasion on social issues: A two way street? Political Research Quarterly, 56, 49-58.

Bailey, M. E., & Lindeholm, K. (2003). Tocqueville and the rhetoric of civil religion in the presidential inaugural addresses. Christian Scholar's Review, 23, 259-279.

Ball, M. A. "Political Language and the Search for an Honorable Peace: Presidents Kennedy and Johnson, Their Advisors, and Vietnam Decision Making." Beyond Speech and Symbols: Explorations in the Rhetoric of Politicians and the Media. Ed. C. De Landtsheer & O. Feldman. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2000. 35-51.

Barabas, Jason. Presidential policy initiatives: How the public learns about State of the Union proposals from the mass media. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 38, 195–222. []

Barone, Michael. “The Theater of Inaugurals. (Cover Story).” U.S. News & World Report, vol. 114, no. 3, Jan. 1993, p. 51.

Barrett, A. W. (2005). Going public as a legislative weapon: Measuring presidential appeals regarding specific legislation. Presidential Studies Quarterly 35, 1-10.

Baskerville, Barnet. "The Illusion of Proof." Western Journal of Communication 25 (1961): 236-242.

Baum, M. A. (2004). Going private: Public opinion, presidential rhetoric, and the domestic politics of audience costs in U.S. foreign policy crises. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 48, 603-631

Beasley, Vanessa B. "Engendering Democratic Change: How Three U.S. Presidents Discussed Female Suffrage." Rhetoric and Public Affairs 5 (2002): 79-103.

—-. "Identity, Democracy, and Presidential Rhetoric." Politics, Discourse, and American Society: New Agendas. Ed. R. P. Hart and B. H. Sparrow. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2001. 19-34.

—-. "Making Diversity Safe for Democracy: American Pluralism and the Presidential Local Address, 1885-1992." Quarterly Journal of Speech 87 (2001): 25-40.

—-. "The Rhetoric of Ideological Consensus in the United States: American Principles and American Pose in Presidential Inaugurals." Communication Monographs 68 (2001): 169-183.

—-. "The Rhetorical Presidency Meets the Unitary Executive: Implications for Presidential Rhetoric on Public Policy." Rhetoric & Public Affairs 13 (2010): 7–36.

—-. You, the People: American National Identity in Presidential Rhetoric. College Station: Texas A & M UP, 2004.

Bennet, Gordon C. "The Heckler and the Heckled in the Presidential Campaign of 1968." Communication Quarterly 27 (1979): 28-37.

Benoit, William L. "Acclaiming, Attacking, and Defending in Presidential Nominating Acceptance Addresses, 1960-1996." Quarterly Journal of Speech 85 (1999): 247-267.

Ben-Porath, E. N. (2007). Rhetoric of atrocitries: The place of horrific human rights abuses in presidential persuasion efforts. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 37, 181-202.

Berens, John F. "Like a Prophetic Spirit." Quarterly Journal of Speech 63 (1977): 290-297.

Berggren, D. J., & Rae, N. C. (2006). Jimmy Carter and George W. Bush: Faith, foreign policy, and an evangelical presidential style. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 36, 606-632.

Berquist, Goodwin F., and James L. Golden. "Media Rhetoric: Criticism and the Public Perception of the 1980 Presidential Debates." Quarterly Journal of Speech 67 (1981): 125-137.

Black, Edwin. "Electing Time." Quarterly Journal of Speech 59 (1973): 125-129.

Bose, Meena. "Words as Signals: Drafting Cold War Rhetoric in the Eisenhower and Kennedy Administrations." Congress & the Presidency 25.1 (1998): 23-41.

Bostdorff, Denise M. The Presidency and the Rhetoric of Foreign Crisis. Columbia: U of South Carolina P, 1993.

Bradley, Bert E. "Jefferson and Reagan: The Rhetoric of Two Inaugurals." Southern Journal of Speech Communication 48 (1983): 119-136.

—-. "A Response to "Two Inaugurals: A Second Look"." Southern Journal of Speech Communication 48 (1983): 386-390.

Campbell, Karlyn Kohrs, and Kathleen Hall Jamieson. Deeds Done in Words: Presidential Rhetoric and the Genres of Governance. Chicagor: Univ. of Chicago Press, 1990.

Campbell, K. K., & Jamieson, K. H. (1986). Inaugurating the presidency. In H. W. Simons & A. A. Aghazarian. Form, Genre, and the study of political discourse (pp.203-225). Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press.

Campbell, K. K., & Jamieson, K. H. (1985). Inaugurating the presidency. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 15, 394-411.

Canes-Wrone, B. (2001). The president's legislative influence from public appeals. American Journal of Political Science, 45, 313–329.

Carson, Herbert L. "War Requested: Wilson and Roosevelt." Central States Speech Journal 10 (1958): 28-32.

Ceaser, J, Thurow, G. E., Tulis, J., & Bessette, J. M. "The Rise of the Rhetorical Presidency." Presidential Studies Quarterly 11 (1981): 158-171.

Chester, Edward W. Beyond the rhetoric: A new look at presidential inaugural addresses. Presidential Studies Quarterly 10/4 (1980): 571-581.

Coe, K. (2007). The language of freedom in the American presidency, 1933-2006, Presidential Studies Quarterly 37, 375–398.

Cohen, J. "Presidential Rhetoric and the Public Agenda." American Journal of Political Science 39 (1995): 87-107.

Cohen, J. E., & Hamman, J. A. (2003). The polls: Can presidential rhetoric affect the public's economic perceptions? Presidential Studies Quarterly, 33, 408-423.

Cohen, J. E., & Powell, R. J. (2005). Building public support from the grassroots up: The impact of presidential travel on state-level approval. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 35, 11-27.

Coleman, J. J., & Mana, P. (2007). Above the Fray? The use of party system references in presidential rhetoric. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 37, 399–426.

Conley, R. S. (2011). The harbinger of the unitary executive? An analysis of presidential signing Statements from Truman to Carter. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 41, 546-569.

Corcoran, P. E. "Presidential Concession Speeches: The Rhetoric of Defeat." Political Communication 11 (1994): 109-131.

Corcoran, P. E. (1995). Presidential endings: Conceding defeat. In K. E. Kendall (Ed.), Presidential campaign discourse: Strategic communication problems. (pp. 255-291). Albany: State University of New York press.

Cornfield, Michael. "Presidential Rhetoric and the Credibility Gap." Communication Research 14 (1987): 462-469.

Dause, Charles A. "Analysis of a Debate: Two Perspectives." Central States Speech Journal 23 (1972): 86-91.

Dean, Kevin W. “'We Seek Peace, But We Shall Not Surrender': JFK's Use of Juxtaposition for Rhetorical Success in the Berlin Crisis.” Presidential Studies Quarterly, vol. 21, no. 3, 1991, pp. 531–544. JSTOR, Accessed 1 Dec. 2020.

Denton, R. (1982). The symbolic dimensions of the American presidency. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press.

Denton, R. E., & Hahn, D. F. (1986). Presidential communication. New York: Praeger.

Dorsey, L. G. (2002). Introduction: The president as a rhetorical leader. In L. G. Dorsey (Ed.), The presidency and rhetorical leadership (pp. 3-19). College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press.

Dorsey, Leroy G., ed. The Presidency and Rhetorical Leadership. College Station: Texas A&M U, 2002.

Dorsey, L. G. (2008). The rhetorical presidency and the myth of the American dream. In J. A. Aune and M. J. Medhurst, (Eds.) The prospect of presidential rhetoric (pp. 130-159). College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press.

Dow, Bonnie J. "The Function of Epideictic and Deliberative Strategies in Presidential Crisis Rhetoric." Western Journal of Speech Communication 53 (1989): 294-317.

Druckman, J. N. & Holmes, J. W. (2004). Does presidential rhetoric matter? Priming and presidential approval. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 34, 755-777.

Drury, J. P. M. (2014). Speaking with the People's voice: How presidents invoke public opinion. Texas A&M University Press.

Dunne, M. (2001). Farewell to the farewell address? Or a 'discourse of the permanent and transient in American politics'. The Virginia Quarterly Review, 77, 211-229.

Edwards III, G. C. (2003). On deaf ears: The limits of the bully pulpit. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Edwards III, G. C., (1996). Presidential rhetoric: What difference does it make? In M. J. Medhurst (Ed.), Beyond the rhetorical presidency (pp. 199-217). College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press.

Ellis, R. J. (1998). Accepting the nomination: From Martin Van Buren to Franklin Delano Roosevelt. In R. J. Ellis (Ed.) Speaking to the people: The rhetorical presidency in historical perspective (pp. 112-133). Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press.

Ellis, R. J., ed. (1998). Speaking to the people: The rhetorical presidency in historical perspective. Amherst: Univ. of Massachusetts Press.

Ellis, R. J., & Kirk, S. (1998). Jefferson, Jackson and the origins of presidential mandate. In R. J. Ellis (Ed.) Speaking to the people: The rhetorical presidency in historical perspective (pp. 35-65). Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press.

Ellis, R. J., & Walker, A. (2007). Policy speech in the nineteenth century rhetorical presidency: The case of Zachary Taylor's 1849 tour. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 37, 248-269.

Ellis, Richard, and Aaron Wildavsky. ""Greatness" Revisited: Evaluating the Performance of Early American Presidents in Terms of Cultural Dilemmas." Presidential Studies Quarterly 21 (1991): 15-34.

Emrich, C. G., Brower, H. H., Feldman, J. M., & Garland, H. (2001). Images in words: Presidential rhetoric, charisma, and greatness. Administrative Science Quarterly, 46, 527-560.

Erickson, K. V. (1989). Presidential leaks: Rhetoric and mediated political knowledge. Communication Monographs, 56, 199-214.

Erickson, Keith V. "Presidential Rhetoric's Visual Turn: Performance Fragments and the Politics of Illusionism." Communication Monographs 67 (2000): 138-157.

Erickson, Keith V. "Presidential Spectacles: Political Illusionism and the Rhetoric of Travel." Communication Monographs 65 (1998): 141-153.

Erickson, K. V., & Fleuriet, C. A. (1991). Presidential anonymity: Rhetorical identity management and the mystification of political reality. Communication Quarterly, 39, 272-289.

Erickson, K. V., & Schmidt, W. V. (1982). Presidential political silence: Rhetoric and the Rose Garden strategy. Southern Speech Communication Journal, 49, 339-360.

Eshbaugh-Soha, M. (2006). The president's speeches: Beyond "Going Public." Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers.

Feldman, J. (2007). Framing the debate: Famous presidential speeches and how progressives can use them to change the conversation. New York: IG Publishing.

Fields, Wayne. Union of Words: A History of Presidential Eloquence. New York: Free P, 1996.

Fisher, Walter R. (1980). Rhetorical fiction and the presidency. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 66, 119-126.

—-. "Reaffirmation and Subversion of the American Dream." Quarterly Journal of Speech 59 (1973): 160-167.

—-. "Rhetorical Fiction and the Presidency." Quarterly Journal of Speech 66 (1980): 119-126.

Flanagan, Jason C. (2009). Imagining the enemy: American presidential war rhetoric from Woodrow Wilson to George W. Bush. Regina Books.

Friedenberg, Robert V. ""Selfish Interests" or the Prerequisites for Political Debate: An Analysis of the 1980 Presidential Debate and its Implications for Future Campaigns." Journal of the American Forensic Association 18 (1981): 91-98.

Friedenberg, R. V. (1990). Theodore Roosevelt and the Rhetoric of Militant Decency. Greenwood.

Gelderman, Carol W. All the Presidents' Words: The Bully Pulpit and the Creation of the Virtual Presidency. New York: Walker, 1997.

Germino, Dante L. The Inaugural Addresses of American Presidents: The Public Philosophy and Rhetoric. Lanham, MD: UP of America, 1984.

Goggin, Malcolm L. "The Ideological Content of Presidential Communications: The MessageTailoring Hypothesis Revisited." American Politics Quarterly 12 (1984): 361-381.

Goodale, G. (2010). The presidential sound: From orotund to instructional speech, 1892-1912. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 96, 164-184.

Gronbeck, B. E. (1996). The presidency in the age of secondary orality. In M. J. Medhurst (Ed.), Beyond the rhetorical presidency (pp. 30-49). College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press.

Han, L. C. (2006). New Strategies for an Old Medium: The Weekly Radio Addresses of Reagan and Clinton. Congress & the Presidency, 33, 25-45.

Han, L. C. (2005). The Rose Garden strategy revisited: How presidents use public activities. In L. C. Han and D. J. Heith (Eds.) In the public domain: Presidents and the challenges of public leadership (pp. 163-177). Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.

Han, L. C., & Krov, M. J. (2005). Life after the White House: The public post-presidency and the development of presidential legacies. In L. C. Han and D. J. Heith (Eds.) In the public domain: Presidents and the challenges of public leadership (pp. 227-254). Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.

Hart, R. P. (1987). The sound of leadership: Presidential communication in the modern age. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Hart, R. P. (2008). Thinking harder about presidential discourse: The question of efficacy. In J. A. Aune and M. J. Medhurst, (Eds.) The prospect of presidential rhetoric (pp. 238-248). College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press.

Hart, Roderick P. Verbal Style and the Presidency: A Computer Based Analysis. Orlando: Academic Press, 1984. Highlander, John P., and Lloyd I. Watkins. "A Closer look at the Great Debates." Western Journal of Communication 26 (1962): 39-48.

Hartnett, S. J., & Mercieca, J. R. (2007). “A discovered dissembler can achieve nothing great"; or, four theses on the death of presidential rhetoric in an age of empire. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 37, 599–621.

Hasian, M., Jr. (2008). The return of the imperial presidency. In J. A. Aune and M. J. Medhurst, (Eds.) The prospect of presidential rhetoric (pp. 69-98). College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press.

Hawdon, J. E. (2004). The role of presidential rhetoric in the creation of a moral panic: Reagan, Bush, and the War on Drugs. Deviant Behavior, 22, 419-445.

Hinck, E. A. (1993). Enacting the presidency: Political argument, presidential debates, and presidential character. Westport, CT: Praeger.

Hinckley, B. (1990). The symbolic presidency: How presidents portray themselves. New York: Routledge.

Hoffman, D. R. & Howard, A. d. (2006). Addressing the State of the Union: The evolution and impact of the president's big speech. Boulder, CO, Lynne Rienner Publishers.

Ivie, Robert L. "Presidential Motives for War." Quarterly Journal of Speech 60 (1974): 337-345.

Kane, Peter E. "Evaluating the 'Great Debates'." Western Journal of Communication 30 (1966): 89-96.

Kaufer, David S. "The Ironist and Hypocrite as Presidential Symbols: A Nixon-Kennedy Analogy." Communication Quarterly 27 (1979): 20-26.

Kerr, Harry P. "The Great Debates in a New Perspective." Communication Quarterly 9 (1961): 9-11.

Kiewe, Amos, ed. The Modern Presidency and Crisis Rhetoric. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1993.

King, Robert L. "Transforming Scandal into Tragedy: A Rhetoric of Political Apology." Quarterly Journal of Speech 71 (1985): 289-301.

Kuypers, Jim A. Presidential Crisis Rhetoric and the Press in the Post-Cold War World. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1997.

Lim, Elvin T. "Five Trends in Presidential Rhetoric: An Analysis of Rhetoric from George Washington to Bill Clinton." Presidential Studies Quarterly 32 (2002): 328-366.

Martin, Martha Anna. "Ideologues, Ideographs, and "The Best Men": From Carter to Reagan." Southern Journal of Speech Communication 49 (1983): 12-25.

Martin, S.A. (Ed.) (2017). Columns to character: the presidency and the press enter the digital age. Texas A&M University Press.

McClerren, Beryl F. "Southern Baptists and the Religious Issue During the Presidential Campaigns of 1928 and 1960." Central States Speech Journal 18 (1967): 102-112.

Meckler, Michael. Classical Antiquity and the Politics of America: From George Washington to George W. Bush. Waco: Baylor University Press, 2006.

Medhurst, Martin J., ed. Beyond the Rhetorical Presidency. College Station: Texas A & M UP, 1996.

Murphy, John M. "Knowing the President: The Dialogic Evolution of the Campaign History." Quarterly Journal of Speech 84 (1998): 23-40.

Oliver, W. M. (2003). Presidential rhetoric on crime and public opinion. Criminal Justice Review, 23, 139-160.

Olson, Kathryn M. "Constraining Open Deliberations In Times of War: Presidential War Justifications for Grenada and the Persian Gulf." Argumentation and Advocacy 27 (1991): 64-79.

Panagopoulos, C. (2011). Polls and elections: Firing back: Out-party responses to presidential State of the Union Address: 1966-2006. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 41, 604-617.

Parry-Giles, Shawn J. The Rhetorical Presidency, Propaganda, and the Cold War, 1945-1955. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2001.

Parry-Giles, T. (2008). To produce a "judicious choice: Presidential responses to the exercise of advice and consent by the U.S. Senate on Supreme Court nominations. In J. A. Aune and M. J. Medhurst, (Eds.) //The prospect of presidential rhetoric //(pp. 99-129). College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press.

Parry-Giles, S. J., & Parry-Giles, T. (1996). Gendered politics and presidential image construction: A reassessment of the "Feminine Style." Communication Monographs, 63, 337-353. (uses campaign films)

Parry-Giles, T., & Parry-Giles, S. J. (1997). Political scopophilia, presidential campaigning, and the intimacy of American politics. Communication Studies, 47, 191-205.

Pauley, Garth E. (1999). Documentary desegregation: A rhetorical analysis of Crisis: Behind a Presidential Commitment. Southern Communication Journal, 64, 123-142.

Pauley, Garth E. The Modern Presidency and Civil Rights: Rhetoric on Race From Roosevelt to Nixon. College Station: Texas A&M Up, 2001.

Peake, J. S.; & Eshbaugh-Soha, M. (2008). The agenda-setting impact of major presidential TV addresses. Political Communication, 25, 113-137.

Peterson, Tarla Rae. Green Talk in the White House: The Rhetorical Presidency Encounters Ecology. College Station: Texas A & M UP, 2004.

Phifer, Gregg. "Two Inaugurals: A Second Look." Southern Journal of Speech Communication 48 (1983): 378-385.

Pratt, James W. "An Analysis of Three Crisis Speeches." [Kennedy, Johnson, Eisenhower] Western Journal of Communication 34 (1970): 194-203.

Ragsdale, L. (1984). The politics of presidential speechmaking, 1949-1980, American Political Science Review, 78, 971-984.

Ragsdale, L. (1987). Presidential speechmaking and the public audience: Individual presidents and group attitudes. Journal of Politics, 49, 704-736.

Ray, Robert F. "Ghostwriting in Presidential Campaigns." Communication Quarterly 4 (1956): 13-15.

Reports on the national task force on the presidency and deliberative democracy. (2008). In J. A. Aune and M. J. Medhurst, (Eds.) The prospect of presidential rhetoric (Six reports, pp. 252-378). College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press.

Rex, J. (2011). The president's war agenda: A rhetorical view. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 41, 93-118. (McKinley and Bush)

Rice, L. R. (2010). Statements of power: Presidential use of Statements of Administration policy and signing statements in the legislative process. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 40, 686- 707.

Ritter, Kurt, and Martin J. Medhurst, eds. Presidential Speechwriting: From the New Deal to the Reagan Revolution and Beyond. College Station: Texas A & M UP, 2004.

Rottinghaus, B. (2008). Presidential leadership on foreigh policy, opinion polling, and the possible limits of "crafted talk". Political Communiation, 25, 138-157.

Ryan, Halford Ross. American Rhetoric from Roosevelt to Reagan. Prospect Heights, Ill.: Waveland, 1983.

Ryan, H. R. (Ed) (1993). The inaugural addresses of Twentieth-century American presidents. Westport, CT: Praeger.

Ryan, H. R. (1995). Presidential rhetoric. In The Brigance Forum: Leadership, rhetoric and the American presidency, (pp. 20-25). Crawfordsville, IN: Wabash College.

Ryan, H. R. (1995). U. S. presidents as orators: A bio-critical sourcebook. Westport, CT: Greenwood.

Ryfe, D. (2005). Presidents in culture: The meaning of presidential communication. New York: Peter Lang Publisher.

Samovar, Larry A. "Ambiguity and Unequivocation in the Kennedy-Nixon Television Debates." Quarterly Journal of Speech 48 (1962): 277-279.

Schimmel, Noam. Presidential Healthcare Reform Rhetoric: Continuity, Change & Contested Values from Truman to Obama. Palgrave Macmillan, 2016.

Schmuhl, R. (1995). The rhetorical presidency in an age of hyperdemocracy and hypercommunications. In The Brigance Forum: Leadership, rhetoric and the American presidency, (pp. 13-19). Crawfordsville, IN: Wabash College.

Shogan, C. J. (2007) Anti-intellectualism in the modern presidency: A Republican populism. Perspectives on politics, 5, 295-303.

Shogan, C. J. (2006). The moral rhetoric of American presidents. College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press.

Sigelman, L. (1996). Presidential inaugurals: The modernization of a genre. Political Communication, 13, 81-92.

Smith, C. A. (1983). The audience of the "rhetorical presidency": An analysis of president-constituent interactions. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 8, 613-622.

Smith, C. A., & Smith, K. B. (1994). The White House speaks: Presidential leadership as persuasion. Westport, CT: Praeger.

Smith, C. A., & Smith, K. B. (1985). The president and the public: Rhetoric and national leadership. Lanham, MD: University Press of America.

Stewart, C. (1993). Offering good reasons: How American presidents justify military actions. The Brigance Forum, Wabash College.

Stewart, Charles J. "The Pulpit in Time of Crisis: 1865 and 1963." Communication Monographs 32 (1965): 427-434.

Stuckey, M. E. (1992). Anecdotes and conversations: The narrational and dialogic styles of modern presidential communication. Communication Quarterly, 40, 45-55.

Stuckey, M. E. (2004). Defining Americans: The presidency and national identity. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas.

Stuckey, M. E. (1991). The president as interpreter-in-chief. Chatham, NJ: Chatham House.

Stuckey, M. (1997). Strategic failures in the modern presidency. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.

Stuckey, M. E., & Antczak, F. J. (1988). The rhetorical presidency: Deepening vision, widening exchange. In M. E. Rolofff (Ed.) Communication Yearbook 21. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Taylor, B. C. (2007). "The Means to Match Their Hatred": Nuclear weapons, rhetorical democracy, and presidential discourse. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 37, 667–692.

Tedin, K., Rottinghaus, B., & Rodgers, H. (2011). When the president goes public: The consequences of communication mode for opinion change across issue types and groups. Political Research Quarterly, 64, 506-519.

Teten, R. L. (2008). The evolution of the rhetorical presidency and getting past the traditional/modern divide. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 38, 308–314.

Teten, R. L. (2003). Evolution of the modern rhetorical presidency: Presidential presentation and development of the State of the Union Address, Presidential Studies Quarterly, 33, 333-346.

Tetlock, P. E. (1981). Pre-to postelection shifts in presidential rhetoric: Impression management or cognitive adjustment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 41, 207-212.

Thoemmes, F. J., & Conway, L G. III (2007). Integrative complexity of 41 U.S. Presidents. Political Psychology, 28, 193–226. (State of the Union Speeches)

Thurow, G. E. (1996). Dimensions of presidential character. In M. J. Medhurst (Ed.), Beyond the rhetorical presidency (pp. 15-29). College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press.

Tulis, J. K. (2007). The rhetorical presidency in retrospect. Critical Review, 19, 2, 3.

Tulis, J. K. (1996). Revising the rhetorical presidency. In M. J. Medhurst (Ed.), Beyond the rhetorical presidency (pp. 3-14). College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press.

Tulis, J. K. (1989). Reflections on the rhetorical presidency in American political development. In R. J. Ellis (Ed.) Speaking to the people: The rhetorical presidency in historical perspective (pp. 211-222). Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press.

Tulis, J. K. (1987). The rhetorical presidency. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

University of Washington Discourse Analysis Group. "The Rhetorical Construction of a President." Discourse and Society 1 (1990): 189-200.

Vaughn, J. S., & Villalobos, J. D., (2006). Conceptualizing and measuring White House staff influence on presidential rhetoric. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 36, 681-688.

Vile, J. (2002). Presidential winners and losers: Words of victory and concession. Washington, DC: CQ Press.

Villalobos, J. D., Vaughn, J. S., & Azar, J. R. (2012). Politics or policy? How rhetoric matters to presidential leadership of Congress, Presidential Studies Quarterly, 42, 549–576.

Weaver, Ruth Ann. "Acknowledgement of Victory and Defeat: The Reciprocal Ritual." Central States Speech Journal 33 (1982): 480-489.

Welch, R. L. (2003). Presidential success in communicating with the public through televised addresses. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 33, 347-365.

Whitford, A. B., & Yates, J. (2003). Policy signals and executive governance: Presidential rhetoric in the war on drugs. Journal of Politics, 65, 995-1012.

Whitney, G. (2002). American presidents: Their farewell messages to the nation, 1796-2001. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Pub.

Wilson, Gerald L. "Rhetorical Echos of a Wilsonian Idea." Quarterly Journal of Speech 43 (1957): 271-272.

Windt, T. O. (1983). Presidential Rhetoric (1961-to the present). Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt.

Windt, T. O. (1984). Presidential rhetoric: Definition of a field of study. Central States Speech Journal, 35, 24-34. Revised version: (1986). Presidential Studies Quarterly, 16, 102-113.

Windt, T. O. (1992). Presidents and protesters: Political Rhetoric in the 1960s. Tuscaloosa, AL: University of Alabama Press.

Windt, T. O., & Ingold, B. (1986). Essays in presidential rhetoric (2nd Ed). Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt.

Winkler, C. (2008). Revising the cold war narrative to emcompass terrorist threats: Vietnam and beyond. In J. A. Aune and M. J. Medhurst, (Eds.) The prospect of presidential rhetoric (pp. 182-208). College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press.

Winkler, C. K. (2006). In the name of terrorism: Presidents on political violence in the post-World War II era. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.

Wood, B. D. (2007). The politics of economic leadership: The casues and consequences of presidential rhetoric. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Wood, B. D. (2004). Presidential rhetoric and economic leadership. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 34, 573-606.

Young, G., & Perkins, W. B. (2005). Presidential rhetoric, the public agenda, and the end of presidential television’s “Golden Age.” Journal of Politics, 67, 1190–1205.

Young, M. J. (2008). Of allies and enemies: Old wine in new bottles or New wine in an old jug? In J. A. Aune and M. J. Medhurst, (Eds.) The prospect of presidential rhetoric (pp. 160-181). College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press.

Zagacki, K. S (1992). Rhetoric, failure, and the presidency: The case of Vietnam. Communication Studies, 43, 42-55.

Zarefsky, D. (2002). The presidency has always been a place for rhetorical leadership. In L. G. Dorsey (Ed.), The presidency and rhetorical leadership (pp.20-41). College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press.

Zarefsky, D. (2004). Presidential rhetoric and the power of definition. Presidential Studies Quarterly 34, 607-619.

Zernicke, P. H. (1994). Pitching the presidency: How presidents depict the office. Westport, CT: Praeger.

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