Presidential Debates

Selected Bibliography

Aaron, T. D. (1999). First Amendment Rights: Excluding political candidates from state-sponsored televised debates.Florida Law Review, 51, 975-984.

Abramowitz, A. I. (1978). The impact of a presidential debate on voter rationality. American Journal of Political Science, 22, 680-690.

The American Presidency Project: Presidential Debates. 2016. [http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/debates.php]

Asard, E., & Gronbeck, B. E. (2000). Televised party leader and presidential candidate debates in Sweden and the United States. T. A. Hollihan (Ed.), Argument at century's end: Reflecting on the past and envisioning the future (pp. 394-402). Annandale, VA: National Communication Association.

The aftermath of round three (1992, Oct. 24). Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, 50, 3336. [provides #s on viewership]

Alexander, H. & Margolis, J. (1978). The making of the debates. In G. Bishop, R. Meadow, & M. Jackson-Beeck (Eds.), The presidential debates: Media, electoral and policy perspectives (pp. 18-32). New York: Praeger.

An C. & Pfau, M. (2004). The efficacy of inoculation in televised political debates. Journal of Communication, 54, 421-436.

Anderson, J. B. (1988). A proper institution: Guaranteeing televised presidential debates. Washington, DC: Brookings Institute.

Antonian, A. (2000). Government-owned broadcasters retain the right to control political candidates' First Amendment Right of access to sponsored debates. Seton Hall Constitutional Law Journal, 10, 493-542.

Apker, J., & Voss. R. W. (1994). The student voter. In D. B. Carlin and M. S. McKinney (Eds.), The 1992 presidential debates in focus (pp. 187-202). Westport, CT: Praeger.

Atkin, C., Hocking, J., & McDermott, S. (1979). Home state voter response and secondary media coverage. In S. Kraus (Ed.), The great debates: Carter vs. Ford, 1976, Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.

Auer, J. J. (1962). The counterfeit debates. In S. Kraus (Ed.), The great debates: Carter vs. Ford, 1976 (pp.142-150). Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Auer, J. J. (1981). Great myths about the great debates. Speaker and Gavel, 18,14-21.

Auer, J. J. (1986). Presidential debates: Public understanding and political institutionalization. Speaker and Gavel, 24,1-7.

Barmann, B. C. (1990). Third party candidate and presidential debates. Columbia Journal of Law and Social Problems, 441-466.

Barbaros, C. (2012). Exploring televised political debates: Strategies and issues. Argumentum: Journal of Argumentation Theory & Rhetoric, 10, 140-149. (Romania)

Barrow, L. (1961). Factors related to attention to the first Kennedy-Nixon debate. Journal of Broadcasting, 5, 229-238.

Barrow, R. L. (1977). Presidential debates of 1976: Toward a two party political system. University of Cincinnati Law Review, 46, 123-149.

Bartels, L. M. (1988). Presidential primaries and dynamics of public choice. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Bates, S. (1993, February). The Future of Presidential Debates. http://www.annenberg.nwu.edu/pubs/debate/Battle of the sexes (1992, Sept-Oct). Psychology Today, 25, 13.

Bechtolt, W. E., Jr., Hilyard, J., & Bybee, C. R. (1977). Agenda control in the 1976 debates: A content analysis. Journalism Quarterly, 54, 674-681.

Beck, C. S. (1996). "I've got some points I'd like to make here": The achievement of social face through turn management during the 1992 Vice President debate. Political Communication, 13, 165-180.

Becker, L., Sobowale, I., Cobbey, R., & Eyal, C. H. (1978). Debates' effects on voters' understanding of candidates and issues. In G. Bishop, R. Meadow, and M. Jackson-Beeck (Eds.), The presidential debates: Media, electoral, and policy perspective (pp. 126-139). New York: Praeger.

Becker, L. B., Weaver, D. H., Graber, D. A., & McCombs, M. E. (1979). Influence on public agendas. In S. Kraus (Ed.), The great debates: Carter vs. Ford, 1976 (pp. 418-428). Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Becker, S., & Lower, E. (1962). Broadcasting in presidential campaigns. In S. Kraus (Ed.), The great debates: Background, perspective, effects (pp. 25-55).

Becker, S. L., Pepper, R., Wenner, L., & Kim, J. (1979). Information flow and the shaping of meaning. In S. Kraus (Ed.), The great debates: Carter vs. Ford, 1976 (pp. 384-397). Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Benoit, W. L. (2018). Issue ownership in the 2016 presidential debates. Argumentation & Advocacy, 54, 95-103.

Benoit, W. L. (2013). Candidates' personal qualities In political leaders' debates. Human Communication, 16, 87-94.

Benoit, W. L. (2013). Political election debates: Informing voters about policy and character. Lexington Books.

Benoit, W. L., (2007). Determinates of defense in presidential debates. Communication Research Reports, 24, 319-325.

Benoit, W. L. (2000, May). Let's put "debate" into presidential debates. Rostrum, 74, 21-24.

Benoit, W. L., & Arnie, D. (2005). A functional analysis of American vice presidential debates. Argumentation and Advocacy, 41, 225-236.

Benoit, W. L., Blaney, J. R., & Pier, P. M. (1998). Debates: A free-for-all. In W. L Benoit, J. R. Blaney, & P. M. Pier (Eds.), Campaign '96: A functional analysis of acclaiming, attacking, and defending (pp. 57-74). Westport, CT: Praeger.

Benoit, W. L., & Brazeal, L. M. (2002). A functional analysis of the 1988 Bush-Dukakis presidential debates. Argumentation and Advocacy, 38, 219-233.

Benoit, W. L., &, Bryan, J. M. (2014). A functional analysis of UK debates in Northern Ireland, Scotland, and Wales. Western Journal of Communication, 78, 653-667.

Benoit, W. L., & Currie, H. (2001). Inaccuracies in media coverage of the 1996 and 2000 presidential debates. Argumentation and Advocacy, 38, 28-39.

Benoit, W. L., & Delbert, J. (2009). A functional analysis of the Lincoln-Douglas debates. Argumentation & Advocacy, 46, 110-115.

Benoit, W. L., & Hansen, G. J. (2004). Presidential debate watching, issue knowledge, character evaluation and vote choice. Human Communication Research, 30, 124-144.

Benoit, W. L, & Hansen, G. J. (2004). Issue ownership in primary and general presidential debates. Argumentation & Advocacy, 40, 143-154.

Benoit, W. L., & Hansen, G. J. (2002). Issue adaptation of presidential television spots and debates to primary and general audiences. Communication Research Reports, 19, 138-145.

Benoit, W. L., & Hansen, G. J. (2001). Presidential debate questions and the public agenda. Communication Quarterly, 49, 130-141.

Benoit, W. L., Hansen, G. J., & Stein, K. A. (2004). Newspaper coverage of presidential primary debates. Argumentation and Advocacy, 40, 246-258.

Benoit, W. L., Hansen, G. J., & Verser, R. M. (2003). A meta-analysis of the effects of viewing U.S. presidential debates. Communication Monographs, 70, 335-350.

Benoit, W. L., & Henson, J. R. (2009). A functional analysis of the 2008 Vice Presidential debate: Biden versus Palin. Argumentation and Advocacy, 46, 39-50.

Benoit, W. L., & Harthcock, A. (1999). Functions of the Great Debates: Acclaims, attacks, and defenses in the 1960 presidential debates. Communication Monographs, 66, 341-357.

Benoit, W. L., & Henson, J. (2007). A functional analysis of the 2006 Canadian and 2007 Australian elections. Argumentation & Advocacy, 44, 36-48

Benoit, W. L., & Henson, J. (2006). A functional analysis of non-presidential primary debates, Speaker & Gavel, 43, 22-35.

Benoit, W. L., & Klyukovski, A. A. (2006). A functional analysis of 2004 Ukrainian presidential debates. Argumentation, 20, 209-225.

Benoit, W. L., McHale, G. J., Pier, P. M., & McGuire, J. P. (2003). Campaign 2000: A functional analysis of acclaiming, attacking, and defending. Westport, CT: Praeger.

Benoit, W. L., McKinney, M. S., & Stephenson, M. T. (2002). Effects of watching primary debates in the 2000 U.S. presidential campaign. Journal of Communication, 52, 316-331.

Benoit, W. L., McKinney, M. S., & Holbert, R. L. (2001). Beyond learning and persona: extending the scope of presidential debate effects. Communication Monographs, 68, 259-273.

Benoit, W. L., Pier, P. M., Brazeal, L. M., McHale, J. P., Klyukovksi, A., & Airne. D. (2002). The primary decision: A functional analysis of debates in presidential primaries. Westport, CT: Praeger.

Benoit, W. L., & Sheafer, T. (2006). Functional theory and political discourse: Televised debates in Israel and the United States. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 83, 281-297.

Benoit, W. L., Stein, K. A., Hansen, G. J. (2004). Newspaper coverage of presidential debates. Argumentation and Advocacy, 41, 17-27.

Benoit, W. L., & Stephenson, M. T. (2004). Effects of watching a presidential primary debate. Contemporary Argumentation and Debate, 25, 1-25.

Benoit, W. L., & Sudbrock, L. A. (2008). Functional analysis of the 2008 Saddleback Presidential Forum. Contemporary Argumentation and Debate, 29, 68-84.

Benoit, W. L., Webber, D. J., & Berman, J. (1998). Effects of presidential debate watching and ideology on attitudes and knowledge. Argumentation and Advocacy, 34, 163-172.

Benoit, W. L., & Wells, W. T. (1996). Candidate in conflict: Persuasive attack and defense in the 1992 presidential debates. Tuscaloosa, AL: University of Alabama Press.

Benton, C. & Pokorny, G. (1979). The presidential forums. In S. Kraus (Ed.), The great debates: Carter vs. Ford, 1976 (pp. 68-82). Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.

Ben-Porath, E. N. (2007). Question bias and violations of comparability in intraparty debates: Iowa and New Hampshire, 2004. Communication Quarterly, 55, 375-396.

Ben-Seev, S., & White, L. (1962). Effects and implications. In S. Kraus (Ed.), The great debates: Background, perspective, effects (pp. 331-337). Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Beom, K., Carlin, D. B., & Silver, M. D. (2005). The world was watching—and talking: International perspectives on the 2004 presidential debates. American Behavioral Scientist, 49, 243-264.

Berlin, L. N., & Prieto-Mendoza, A. (2014). Evidential embellishment in political debates during US campaigns. Intercultural Pragmatics, 11, 389-409.

Berquist, G. (1994). The 1976 Carter-Ford presidential debates. In R. V. Friedenberg (Ed.), Rhetorical studies of national political debates: 1960-1992 (2nd Ed.) (pp. 29-44). Westport, CT: Praeger.

Berquist, G. F. (1960, September). The Kennedy-Humphrey debate: To talk sense or to talk politics. Today's Speech, 8, 2-3, 31.

Berquist, G. F., & Golden, J. (1981). Media rhetoric and the public perception of the 1980 presidential debates. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 67, 125-137.

Berryhill, B. (19998). Constitutional law - First Amendment - public broadcasters may exclude political candidates from debates as long as exclusion is reasonable and viewpoint-neutral. Mississippi Law Journal, 68, 391-404.

Best, S. J., & Hubbard, C. (1999). Maximizing "minimal effects": the impact of early primary season debates on voter preference. American Politics Quarterly, 27, 450-467.

Best, S. J., & Hubbard, C. (2000). The role of televised debates in the presidential nominating process. In W. G. Mayer (Ed.), In pursuit of the White House 2000: How we choose our presidential nominees (pp. 255-284). New York: Chatham House.

Bilmes, J. (2001). Tactics and styles in the 1992 vice presidential debate: Question placement. Research on Language and social interaction, 34, 151-181.

Bilmes, J. (1999). Questions, answers, and the organization of talk in the 1992 vice presidential debate: Fundamental considerations. Research on Language and Social Interaction, 32, 213-242.

Bippus, A. (2007). Factors predicting the perceived effectiveness of politicians' use of humor during a debate, //Humor: International Journal of Humor Research, 20, 105–121.

Birdsell, D. (1994). What should debates be? Standards of public discourse. In A. H. Miller & B. E. Gronbeck (Eds.), Presidential campaigning and America's self-images (pp. 128-142). Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Birdsell, D. S. (1991). Special issue: Presidential debating beyond the debate analogy. Argumentation and Advocacy, 27, 97-99.

Bishop, G., Meadow, R. G., & Jackson-Beeck, M. (Eds.) (1980). The Presidential Debates. New York, NY: Praeger.

Bishop, G. F., Oldendick, R., & Tuchfarber, A. (1978). The presidential debates as a device for increasing the "rationality" of electoral behavior. In G. F. Bishop, R. Meadow, and M. Jackson-Beeck (Eds.), The presidential debates: Media, electoral, and policy perspectives (pp. 179-196). New York: Praeger.

Bishop, G. F., Oldendick, R., & Tuchfarber, A. (1978). Debate watching and the acquisition of political knowledge. Journal of Communication, 28, 99-113.

Bitzer, L., & Rueter, T. (1980). Carter vs Ford: The counterfeit debates of 1976. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press.

Blankenship, J., Fine, M. G., & Davis, L. K. (1983). The 1980 Republican primary debates: The transformation of actor to scene. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 69, 25-36.

Blankenship, J. (1990). Naming and name calling as acts of definition: Political Campaigns and the 1988 presidential debates. In R. Trapp & J. Schuetz (Eds.), Perspectives on argumentation: Essays in honor of Wayne Brockriede (pp. 162-174). Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press.

Blais, A., & Perrella A. M. L. (2008). Systemic effects of televised candidates' debates. International Journal of Press/Politics, 13, 451-464.

Blenkinsopp, A. J. (2008) . Continuing the debate about presidential debates. Northwestern University Law Review Colloquy, 103, 132-139.

Blume, K. (1985). The presidential election show: Campaign '84 and beyond on the nightly news. South Hadley, MA: Bergin & Garvey. [Chap. 4—Campaign on the nightly news: The debates, pp. 392-406.]

Beom, K., Carlin, D. B., & Silver, M. D. (2005). The world was watching—and talking: International perspectives on the 2004 presidential debates. American Behavioral Scientist, 49, 243 - 264.

Borchers, T., & Miller, J. L. (2014). Bain & political capital in the 2012 GOP primary debates. American Behavioral Scientist, 58, 574-590.

Bostdorff, D. M. (2009). Judgment, experience, and leadership: Candidate debates on the Iraq War I the 2008 presidential primaries. Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 12, 223-277.

Bothwell, R. K., & Bringham, J. C. (1983). Selective evaluation and recall during the 1980 Reagan-Carter debate. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 13, 427-442.

Bowes, J. E. & Strentz, H. (1978). Candidate images: Stereotyping and the 1976 debates. In B. D. Ruben (Ed.), Communication Yearbook 2 (pp. 392-406). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books.

Boydstun, A. E., Glazier, R. A., & Pietryka, M.T. (2013). Playing to the crowd: Agenda control in Presidential Debates. Political Communication, 30, 254-277.

Brubaker, J., & Hanson, G. (2009). The effect of Fox News and CNN's postdebate commentator analysis on viewers' perceptions of presidential candidate performance. Southern Communication Journal, 74, 339-351.

Brydon, S. R. (1985). The two faces of Jimmy Carter: The transformation of a presidential debater, 1976 and 1980. Central States Speech Journal, 36, 138-151.

Bryski, B. G. (1978). An analysis of evidence from first Ford-Carter debate. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 6, 19-30.

Bucy, E. P., & Gong, Z. H., (2015). Image bite analysis of presidential debates. in Exploring the C-SPAN Archives: Advancing the research agenda (pp. 45-75). Browning: X. Robert, Ed., Purdue University Press.

Bush, Clinton, Perot meet in second and third debate (1992, Oct.22). Facts on File, 52, 787-789.

Caddell, P. H. (1981). Memorandum II: Debate Strategy, Oct. 21, 1980. In E. Drew. Portrait of an election: The 1980 presidential campaign (pp. 410-439). New York, NY: Simon and Schuster.

Cantrell, W. R. (1977). The impact of the 1976 presidential debate on a student population. Unpublished manuscript, Illinois State University, Normal, IL.

Carlin, D. B. (2005). DebateWatch: Creating a public sphere for the unheard voices. In M. S. McKinney, L. L. Kaid, Bystrom, D. G., & Carlin, D. B. (Eds.), Communicating politics: Engaging the public in democratic life (pp. 223-234). New York: Peter Lang.

Carlin, D. B. (2000). Watching the debates: A guide for viewers. In S. Coleman (Ed.), Televised election debates: International perspectives (pp. 157-177). New York: St. Martin's Press.

Carlin, D. P. (1999).Constructing the 1996 debates: Determining the settings, formats, and participants. In L. L. Kaid and Bystrom, D. G. (Eds.), The electronic election: Perspectives on the 1996 campaign communication (pp. 133-148). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Carlin, D. P. (1994). Implications for future debate. In D. P. Carlin & M. S. McKinney (Eds.), 1992 presidential debates in focus (pp. 205-215). New York: Praeger.

Carlin, D. P. (1994). A rationale for a focus group study. In D. P. Carlin & M. S. McKinney (Eds.), 1992 presidential debates in focus (pp. 3-19). New York: Praeger.

Carlin, D. P. (1992). Presidential debates as focal points for campaign arguments. Political Communication, 9, 251-265.

Carlin, D. P. (1989). A defense of the "debate" in presidential debates. Argumentation and Advocacy, 25, 208-213.

Carlin, D. P. (2003). Across the ages: Views of the 2000 debates from college freshmen to senior citizens. In L. L Kaid, J. C. Tedesco, D. G. Bystrom, & M. S. McKinney (Eds.) The millennium election: Communication in the 2000 campaign (pp. 229-241). New York: Rowman & Littlefield.

Carlin, D. P., & Bicak, P. J. (1993). Toward a theory of vice presidential debate purposes: An analysis of the 1992 vice presidential debate. Argumentation and Advocacy, 30, 119-130.

Carlin, D. P., Howard, C., Stanfield, S, & Reynolds, L. (1991) The effects of presidential debate formats on clash: A comparative analysis. Argumentation and Advocacy, 27, 126-136.

Carlin, D. P., & McKinney, M. S. (Eds) (1994). The 1992 presidential debates in focus. Westport, CT: Praeger.

Carlin, D. P., Morris, E., & Smith, S. (2001). The influence of format and questions on candidates' argument choices in the 2000 presidential debates. American Behavioral Scientist, 44, 2196-2218.

Carlin, D. B., Schill, D. Levasseur, D. G., & King, A. S. (2005). The post -9/11 public sphere: Citizen talk about the 2004 presidential debates. Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 8, 617-638.

Carter, R. F., & Stamm, K. R. (1994). The 1992 presidential campaign and debates: A cognitive view. Communication Research, 21, 380-395.

Carter, R. (1978). A very peculiar horse race. In G. Bishop, R. Meadow, & M. Jackson-Beeck (Eds.). The presidential debates: Media, electoral, and policy perspectives (pp.3-17). New York: Praeger.

Carter, R. (1962). Some effects of the debates. In S. Kraus (Ed.), The great debates (pp. 253-270). Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Cater, D. (1962). Notes from backstage. In S. Kraus (Ed.), The great debates: Background, perspective, effects (pp. 127-131). Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

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