Rhetorical Sources on American Presidents A to Z

Comprehensive in rhetoric and communication peer-reviewed books and journals. Selective in other literature on specific presidents. As the titles under a particular president increase they may be moved to a separate page or group of pages for that president. If the president's name appears in the title it goes here. Comparisons of more than one president may be listed twice under each president and/or placed in General and Comparative sources. The small but growing literature on First Ladies is included here as part of the rhetorical presidency, under the respective President. For general and comparative sources in Presidential rhetoric see Presidential Rhetoric: General and Comparative Sources

John Adams, 1797-1801

Farrell, J. M. (2002). Classical virtue and presidential fame: John Adams, leadership, and the Franco-American crisis. In L. G. Dorsey (Ed.), The presidency and rhetorical leadership (pp. 73-94). College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press.

James Buchanan, 1857-1861

Terrill, R. E. (2008). James Buchanan: Romancing the union. In M. J. Medhurst (Ed.), Before the rhetorical presidency (pp. 166-193). College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press.

Bush, George H. W., Sr., 1989-1992

Dudash-Buskirk, E. A., & Nickols, N. J. (2016). George H. W. Bush and the Persian Gulf War. In The Bully Pulpit, presidential speeches, and the shaping of public policy. Eds. J. S. Ashley and M. J. Jarmer (191-201), Lexington Books.

Harlow, W. F. (2006). And the walls came tumbling down: Bush's rhetoric of silence during German reunification. In M. J. Medhurst (Ed.), The rhetorical presidency of George H. W. Bush (pp. 37-55). College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press.

Hawdon, J. E. (2004). The role of presidential rhetoric in the creation of a moral panic: Reagan, Bush, and the War on Drugs. Deviant Behavior, 22, 419-445.

Hurst, S. (2004). The rhetorical strategy of George H. W. Bush during the Persian Gulf Crisis 1990–91: How to help lose a war you won. Political Studies, 52, 376-392.

Palczewski, Catherine Helen, and Arnie Madsen. "The Divisiveness of Diversity: President Bush's University of Michigan Commencement Speech as an Example of the Linguistic 'Turnaround'." Argumentation and Advocacy 30 (1993): 16-27.

Robertson, T. (1995). Winning the peace: The “Three Pillars” of George Bush at Whitehall Palace. Speaker and Gavel, 42, 35-46.

Rountree, J. Clarke. "The President as God, the Recession as Evil: "Actus, Status", and the President's Rhetorical Bind in the 1992 Election." Quarterly Journal of Speech 81 (1995): 325-352.

Schultz, D. (2006). Mobilizing museums: Visual arguments in the George H. W. Bush (41) Museum. In P. Riley (Ed.) Engaging Argument (pp. 243-249). Washington, DC: National Communication Association.

Sigelman, Lee, & Cynthia Whissell. (2002). Projecting presidential personas on the radio: An addendum on the Bushes. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 32, 572-576.

Stanton, A. Q., & Peeples, J. A. (2000). Educational reform discourse: President George Bush on "America 2000". Communication Education, 49, 303-319.

Stuckey, M. E. (2005). Doing diversity across the partisan divide: George H. W. Bush, Bill Clinton, and American national identity. In L. C. Han and D. J. Heith (Eds.) In the public domain: Presidents and the challenges of public leadership (pp. 179-205). Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.

Stuckey, Mary. "Remembering the Future: Rhetorical Echoes of World War II and Vietnam in George Bush's Speech on the Gulf War." Communication Studies 43 (1992): 250-253.

Smith, C. A. (2005). President Bush’s enthymeme of evil: The amalgamation of 9/11, Iraq, and moral values. American Behavioral Scientist, 49, 32-47.

Stuckey, M. E., & Ritter, J. A. (2007). George Bush, <Human Rights>, and American Democracy. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 37, 646-666.

Turner, P. K., & Ryden, R. (2000). How George Bush silenced Anita Hill: A Derridian view of the third persona in public argument. Argumentation and Advocacy, 37, 86-97.

University of Washington Discourse Analysis Group. "The Rhetorical Construction of a President." Discourse and Society 1 (1990): 189-200.

Winkler, C. K. (1995). Narrative reframing of public argument: George Bush's handling of the Persian Gulf conflict. In E. Schiappa (Ed.), Warranting assent: Case studies in argument evaluation (pp. 33-55). Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.

Bush, George W., Jr., 2001-2009

Bahador, B., Moses, J., & Youmans, W. L. (2018). Rhetoric and Recollection: Recounting the George W. Bush Administration's Case for War in Iraq. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 48, 4-26.

Bahador, B., Moses, J., & Youmans, W. L. (2018). Rhetoric and Recollection: Recounting the George W. Bush Administration's Case for War in Iraq. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 48, 4-26.

Bailey, D. C. (2008). Enacting transformation: George conversion the Pauline conversion narrative in A Charge to Keep. Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 11, 215-242.

Berggren, D. J., & Rae, N. C. (2006). Jimmy Carter and George W. Bush: Faith, foreign policy, and an evangelical presidential style. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 36, 606-632.

Birdsell, D. S. (2007). George W. Bush’s signing statements: The assault on deliberation. Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 10, 335-360.

Bostdorff, Denise. "George W. Bush's Post-September 11 Rhetoric of Covenant Renewal: Upholding the Faith of the Greatest Generation." Quarterly Journal of Speech 89 (2003): 293-319.

Brown, R. E. (2005). Acting presidential: The dramaturgy of Bush versus Kerry. American Behavioral Scientist, 49, 78-91.

Crockett, D. A. (2003). George W. Bush and the unrhetorical rhetorical presidency. Rhetoric and Public Affairs, 6, 465-486.

Eubanks, P., & Schaeffer, J. D.(2004). A dialogue between traditional and cognitive rhetoric: Readings of figuration in George W. Bush's 'Axis of Evil' address. Rhetoric Society Quarterly, 34, 53-70.

Ferguson, M. L. (2005). “W” stands for women: Feminism and security rhetoric in the post-9/11 Bush administration. Politics & Gender, 1, 9-38.

Gunn, Joshua. "The Rhetoric of Exorcism: George W. Bush and the Return of Political Demonology." Western Journal of Communication 68 (2004): 1-23.

Hart, R. P., & Childers, J. P. (2005). The evolution of candidate Bush: A rhetorical analysis. American Behavioral Scientist, 49. 180-197.

Hartnett, S. J, & Stegrim. L. A. (2006). War Rhetorics: The National Security Strategy of the United States and President Bush's Globalization-through-Benevolent-Empire. South Atlantic Quarterly, 105, 175-205.

Hasian, M., Jr. (2007). Dangerous supplements, inventive dissent, and military critiques of the Bush administration's unitary executive theories. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 37, 693–716.

Hoffman, G. (2005). The rhetoric of Bush's speeches: Purr words and snarl words. ETC: A Review of General Semantics, 62, 198-201.

Hurst, S. (2004). The rhetorical strategy of George H. W. Bush during the Persian Gulf Crisis 1990–91: How to help lose a war you won. Political Studies, 52, 376-392.

Ivie, R. L. (2004). The rhetoric of Bush's "War" on evil. KB Journal, 1, http://kbjournal.org/node/53

Ivie, R. L., (2002). Rhetorical deliberation and democratic politics in the here and now. Rhetoric and Public Affairs, 5, 277-285.

Kassop, N. (2005). Not going public: George W. Bush and the presidential records act. In L. C. Han and D. J. Heith (Eds.) In The public domain: Presidents and the challenges of public leadership (pp. 255-278). Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.

Kelley, C., & Troester, R. (1992). The 1988 campaign rhetoric of George Bush: Some demagogic strategies. Journal of Communication and Media Arts, 1, 65-80.

Kellner, D. (2007). Bushspeak and the politics of lying: Presidential rhetoric in the "War on Terror". Presidential Studies Quarterly, 37, 622–645.

Lakoff, R. T. (2001). The rhetoric of the extraordinary moment: The concession and acceptance speeches of Al Gore and George W. Bush in the 2000 presidential election. Pragmatics: Quarterly Publication of the International Pragmatics Association. 309-27.

Lockett John, S., Domke, D., Coe, K., & Graham, E. S. (2007). Going public, crisis after crisis: The Bush administration and the press from September 11 to Saddam. Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 10, 195-219.

Mayer, J. D., & Rozell, M. J. (2005). A president tranformed: Bush's pre- and post-September 11 rhetoric and image. In L. C. Han and D. J. Heith (Eds.) In the public domain: Presidents and the challenges of public leadership (pp. 207-223). Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.

Medhurst, Martin J. "George W. Bush at Goree Island: American Slavery and the Rhetoric of Redemption." Quarterly Journal of Speech 96 (2010): 257-277.

Medhurst, M. J. (2008). George W. Bush, public faith, and the culture war over same-sex marriage. In J. A. Aune and M. J. Medhurst, (Eds.) The prospect of presidential rhetoric (pp. 209-237). College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press.

Mersken, D. (2004). The construction of Arabs as enemies: Post-September 11 discourse of George Wl Bush. Mass Communication & Society, 7, 157-175.

Milford, M. (2016). National identity, crisis, and the inaugural genre: George W. Bush and 9/11. Southern Communication Journal, 81, 18-31.

Morris, E. (2006). Bush's 16 words: A Toulmin perspective).on the nuance and/or deception in the 2003 State of the Union Address. In P. Riley (Ed.) Engaging Argument (pp. 89-96). Washington, DC: National Communication Association.

Mueller, Alfred G. "George W. Bush's Use of reprehension in His Post-9/11 Address to the Nation." Pennsylvania Communication Annual 58-59 (2002/2003): 60-73.

Murphy, J. M. (2003). "Our Mission and our Moment": George W. Bush and September 11th. Rhetoric and Public Affairs, 6, 607-632

Nier-Weber, D. M. (2016). George W. Bush: Terrorism and American security. In The Bully Pulpit, presidential speeches, and the shaping of public policy. Eds. J. S. Ashley and M. J. Jarmer (217-232), Lexington Books.

Rex, J. (2011). The president's war agenda: A rhetorical view. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 41, 93-118. (McKinley and Bush)

Riswold, C. D. (2004). A religious response veiled in a presidential address: A theological study of Bush's speech on 20 September 2001. Political Theology, 5, 39-46.

Ritter, K. & Howell, B. (2001). Ending the 2000 presidential election: Gore's concession speech and Bush's victory speech. American Behavioral Scientist, 44, 2314-2330.

Robertson, T. (1995). Winning the peace: The “Three Pillars” of George Bush at Whitehall Palace. Speaker and Gavel, 42, 35-46.

Semmler, S. M. (2003). Fetching good out of evil: George W. Bush's post 9/11 rhetoric. Speaker and Gavel, 40, 67-90.

Simons, H. W. (2007). From post-9/11 melodrama to quagmire in Iraq: A rhetorical history. Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 10, 183-194.

Sigelman, Lee, & Cynthia Whissell. (2002). Projecting presidential personas on the radio: An addendum on the Bushes. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 32, 572-576.

Smith, C. A. (2005). President Bush’s enthymeme of evil: The amalgamation of 9/11, Iraq, and moral values. American Behavioral Scientist, 49, 32-47.

Smith. C. R. (2011). Compromising the Manichaean style: A case study of the 2006 State of the Union Address. American Communication Journal, 13. 23-43.

Stuckey, M. E., & Ritter, J. R. (2007). George Bush, <Human Rights>, and American Democracy. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 37, 646–666.

Valenzano, J. M. (2005). The hoofbeats of history: George W. Bush and FDR on the path to very different wars. In C. A. Williard (Ed.), Critical problems in argumentation (pp. 795-801). Washington, DC: National Communication Association.

VanderHaagen, S. C. (2008). Renewing tradition in community: George W. Bush, Calvin College, and the controversy over identity. Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 11, 535-568.

Veil, S. (2005). To answer, or not to answer— That is the question of the hour: Image restoration strategies and media coverage of past drug use questions in the presidential campaigns of Bill Clinton and George W. Bush. Speaker and Gavel, 42, 58-78.

Williams, D. C., & Young, M. J. (2006). Managing "Democracy" in the age of terrorism: Putin, Bush and arguments from definition. In P. Riley (Ed.) Engaging Argument (pp. 297-103). Washington, DC: National Communication Association.

Winkler, C. (2007). Parallels in preemptive war rhetoric: Reagan on Libya, Bush 43 on Iraq. Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 10, 303–334.

Zarefsky, David. "George W. Bush Discovers Rhetoric: September 20, 2001, and the U. S. Response to Terrorism." The Ethos of Rhetoric. Ed. Michael J. Hyde. Greenville: U of South Carolina P, 2004. 136-155.

Carter, Jimmy, 1977-1981

Alexander, K. R. (2002). The tragic science: The uses of Jimmy Carter in Foreign policy realism. Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 5, 1-30.

Altenberg, Les, and Robert Cathcart. "Jimmy Carter on Human Rights: A Thematic Analysis." Central States Speech Journal 33 (1982): 446-457.

Berggren, D. J., & Rae, N. C. (2006). Jimmy Carter and George W. Bush: Faith, foreign policy, and an evangelical presidential style. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 36, 606-632.

Blair, D. M., & Parry-Giles, J. P. (2004). Rosalyn Carter: Crafting a presidential partnership rhetorically. In M. M. Wertheimer (Ed.) Inventing a voice: The rhetoric of American First Ladies of the twentieth century (pp. 341-364). Oxford, England: Rowman & Littlefield.

Blankenship, J. (1976). The search for the 1972 Democratic nomination: A metaphorical perspective. In J. Blankenship & H. Stelzner (Eds.), Rhetoric and communication (pp. 236-60). Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.

Blankenship, S. (1990). Jimmy Carter: An analysis of the symbolic nature of the presidency. Unpublished Honors Thesis, Dept. of Speech Communication, Wake Forest University.

Boas, P. H. (1989). Moving the mercy seat into the White House. Journal of Communication & Religion, 12, 1-9.

Bostdorff, D. M. (1992). Idealism held hostage: Jimmy Carter's rhetoric on the crisis in Iran. Communication Studies, 43, 14-28.

Brydon, S. R. (1985). The two faces of Jimmy Carter: The transformation of a political debater, 1976 and 1980. Central States Speech Journal, 36, 138-151.

Campbell, J. Louis. "Jimmy Carter and the Rhetoric of Charisma." Central States Speech Journal 30 (1979): 174-186.

Cates, C. M.; Mikolajcik, J. J., Eaves, M. H.; & Faux, W. V. (2014). A sign of the times: Jimmy Carter’s national energy policy speech and syntagmatic confusion. The Forensic of Pi Kappa Delta, 99, 21-29.

Check, T. (2000). "The Moral Equivalent of War": Jimmy Carter's use of metaphor and mortification in the energy speech of April 18, 1977. T. A. Hollihan (Ed.), Argument at century's end: Reflecting on the past and envisioning the future (pp. 403-410).Annandale, VA: National Communication Association.

Conley, R. S. (2011). The harbinger of the unitary executive? An analysis of presidential signing Statements from Truman to Carter. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 41, 546-569.

Edwards, J. A., & Cabral, L. (2012). Managing an economic crisis: President Clinton and the Mexican peso crisis. Relevant Rhetoric, 3.

Erickson, K. V. (1980). Jimmy Carter: The Rhetoric of Private and Civic Piety. Western Journal of Speech Communication, 44, 221-235. [convention acceptance speech]

Flint, A. R., & Joy Porter, J. (2005). Jimmy Carter: The re-emergence of faith-based politics and the abortion rights issue. Presidential Studies Quarterly. 35, 28-51.

Hahn, D. (1980). Flailing the profligate [Carter]. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 10, 583-587.

Hahn, D. F. (1984). The rhetoric of Jimmy Carter, 1976-1980. Presidential Studies Journal, 14, 256-288.

Hahn, D. F., & Gustainis, J. J. (1985). Anatomy of an enigma: Jimmy Carter's 1980 State of the Union Address. Communication Quarterly, 33, 43-49.

Houge, A. (2012). Stumping God: Reagan, Carter, and the Invention of a Political Faith. Waco, TX: Baylor University Press.

Johnstone, C. (1978). Electing ourselves in 1976: Jimmy Carter and the American faith. Western Journal of Speech Communication, 42, 241-249.

Kraig, Robert Alexander. "The Tragic Science: The Uses of Jimmy Carter in Foreign Policy Realism." Rhetoric and Public Affairs 5 (2002): 1-30.

Kramer, M. R. (2005). Jimmy Carter's presidential rhetoric: Panama Canal, human rights, and Zimbabwe, Dissertation, University of Minnesota.

Lee, R. (1995). Humility and the political servant: Jimmy Carter's Post-Presidential rhetoric of virtue and power. Southern Communication Journal, 60, 120-131.

Lee, R. (1995). Electoral politics and visions of community: Jimmy Carter, virtue, and the small town myth. Western Journal of Communication, 59, 39-60.

Lee, R. (1995). Electoral politics and visions of community: Jimmy Carter, virtue, and the small town myth. Western Journal of Communication, 59, 39-60.

Lee, R. (1994). Images of civic virtue in the new political rhetoric. In A. H. Miller & B. E. Gronbeck (Eds.), Presidential campaigning and America's self images (pp. 60-81). Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Lee, R. (1986). The new populist campaign for economic democracy: A rhetorical exploration. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 72, 274-289.

Lee, R. (1988). Moralizing and ideologizing: An analysis of political illocutions. Western Journal of Speech Communication, 52, 291-307.

Patton, John H. "A Government as Good as its People: Jimmy Carter and the Restoration of Transcendence to Politics." Quarterly Journal of Speech 63 (1977): 249-257.

Porter, L. W. (1990). Religion and politics: Protestant beliefs in the presidential campaign of 1980. Journal of Communication & Religion, 13, 24-39.

Rarick, D., Duncan, M. B., Lee, D. G. (1977). the Carter persona: An empirical analysis of the rhetorical visions of campaign '76. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 63 258-.

Scholz, T. M. L. (2016) Jimmy Carter: Human rights as the soul of our foreign policy. In The Bully Pulpit, presidential speeches, and the shaping of public policy. Eds. J. S. Ashley and M. J. Jarmer (167-178), Lexington Books.

Smith, C. A. (1986). Leadership, orientation, and rhetorical vision: Jimmy Carter, the "New Right," and the Panama Canal. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 16, .

Stuckey, M. E. (2008). Jimmy Carter, human rights and the national agenda. College Station: Texas A&M University Press.

Sudol, R. (1979). The rhetoric of strategic retreat: Jimmy Carter and the Panama Canal debate. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 65, 379-391.

Cleveland, Grover, 1885-1889, 1893-1896

Hoffmann, Karen S. "'Going Public' in the Nineteenth Century: Grover Cleveland's Repeal of the Sherman Silver Purchase Act." Rhetoric and Public Affairs 5 (2002): 57-77.

Clinton, William J., 1993-2001

Abbott, P. (2006). A "Long and Winding Road": Bill Clinton and the 1960s. Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 9, 1-20.

Anderson, K. V. (2002). From spouses to candidates: Hillary Rodham Clinton, Elizabeth Dole, and the gendered Office of U.S. President. Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 5, 105-132.

Anderson, K. V., & Sheeler, K. H. (2014). Texts (and tweets) from Hillary: Meta-meming and postfeminist political culture Presidential Studies Quarterly, 44, 224–243.

Anderson, V. (2002). 'The Perfect Enemy': Clinton, the Contradictions of Capitalism, and Slaying the Sin Within. Rhetoric Review. 21, 384-.

Anderson, K R. (2016). Bill Clinton: Race and the crisis of the American spirit. In The Bully Pulpit, presidential speeches, and the shaping of public policy. Eds. J. S. Ashley and M. J. Jarmer (203-215), Lexington Books.

Arthos, J. (2002). Appeal to Proportion in the Clinton Impeachment Trial: Reconciling Judgment With Disposition. Western Journal of Communication, 66, 208-229.

Banwart, M. C., & Kaid, L. L. (2003). Behind their skirts: Clinton's appeal to women voters. In R. E. Denton & R. L. Holloway (Eds.) Images, scandal, and communication strategies of the Clinton presidency (pp. 91-112). Westport, CT: Praeger/Greenwood.

Bates, B. R. (2009). Circulation of the World War II / Holocaust analogy in the 1999 Kosovo intervention: Articulating a vocabulary for international conflict. Journal of Language & Politics, 8, 28-51.

Baym, G. (2003). Strategies of illumination: U.S. network news, Watergate and the Clinton affair. Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 6, 633-656.

Beasley, V. B. (2014). Speaking at Selma: Presidential Commemoration and Bill Clinton's Problem of Invention, Presidential Studies Quarterly, 44, 267–289.

Benoit, W. L., Kluykovski, A. A., McHale, J. P., Airne, D. (2001). A fantasy theme analysis of political cartoons on the Clinton-Lewinsky-Starr affair. Critical Studies in Media Communication. 18, 377-394.

Benoit, W. L., & McHale, J. P. (1999). Kenneth Starr's image repair discourse viewed in 20/20. Communication Quarterly, 47, 265-280.

Benoit, W. L., & Wells, W. T. (1998). An analysis of three image restoration discourses on Whitewater. Journal of Public Advocacy, 3, 21-37.

Blaney, J. R., and William L. Benoit. The Clinton Scandals and the Politics of Image Restoration. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2001.

Bostdorff, D. M. (1996). Clinton's characteristic issue management style: Caution, conciliation, and conflict avoidance in the case of gays in the military. In R. E. Denton, and R. L. Holloway (Eds.). The Clinton presidency: Images, issues, and communication strategies (pp. 189-223). Westport, CT: Praeger.

Brenders, D. A., & Fabj, V. (1993). Perceived control and the Clinton presidency: Political discourse in an alienated age. American Behavioral Scientist, 37, 211-224.

Brovero, Adrienne F. "'Thirteen Angry Men': Dale Bumpers' ad hominem Argument in the Impeachment Trial of President Clinton. Argumentation and Advocacy 36 (2000): 218-226.

Brown, L. M. (2007). The contemporary presidency: The greats and the great debate: President William J. Clinton’s use of presidential exemplars. Presidential Studies Quarterly 37, 124-138.

Butler, J. R. "Somalia and the Imperial Savage: Continuities in the Rhetoric of War." Western Journal of Communication 66 (2002): 1-24.

Campbell, K. K. (1998). The discursive performance of femininity: Hating Hillary. Rhetoric and Public Affairs, 1, 1-19.

Carcasson, M. (2006). Ending welfare as we know it: President Clinton and the rhetorical transformation of the anti-welfare culture. Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 9. 655-692.

Carcasson, M., & Rice, M. (2005). The promise and failure of President Clinton's race initiative of 1997-1998: A rhetorical perspective. In J. A. Aune and E. D. Rigsby (Eds.) Civil rights rhetoric and the American presidency (pp. 301-338). College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press.

Carlin, D. B., & Howard, C. C. (1994). Bill Clinton’s campaigns for governor of Arkansas. In S. A. Smith (Ed.), Bill Clinton on stump, state, and stage: The Rhetorical road to the White House (pp. 13-22). Fayetteville, AR: University of Arkansas Press.

Carpenter, R. H. (1994). The stylistic persona of Bill Clinton: From Arkansas and Aristotelian Attica. In S. A. Smith (Ed.), Bill Clinton on stump, state, and stage: The Rhetorical road to the White House (pp. 101-132). Fayetteville, AR: University of Arkansas Press.

Ceccarelli, L. (2004). Neither Confusing Cacophony Nor Culinary Complements. Written Communication, 21, 92-105.

Corrigan, M. (2000). The transformation of going public: President Clinton, the First Lady, and health care reform. Political Communication, 17, 149-168.

Denton, Robert E., and R. L. Holloway, eds. The Clinton Presidency: Images, Issues, and Communication Strategies. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1996.

Denton, R. E., & Holloway, R. L. (1996). Clinton and the town hall meetings: Mediated conversation and the risk of being "in touch." In R. E. Denton, and R. L. Holloway (Eds.). The Clinton presidency: Images, issues, and communication strategies (pp. 17-41). Westport, CT: Praeger.

Dervin, D. (1997). Group fantasy and its discontents during the Clinton administration. Journal of Psychohistory, 25, 184-193.

Dover, E. D. (1998). The presidential election of 1996: Clinton's incumbency and television. Praeger.

Durant. R. F. (2006). A "New Covenant" kept: Core values, presidential communications, and the paradox of the Clinton presidency. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 36, 345-372.

Edwards, J. A. (2015). Foreign policy rhetoric in the 1992 presidential campaign: Bill Clinton's exceptionalist jeremiad. Speaker & Gavel, 52 32-53.

Edwards, J. A., & Valenzano, J. M. (2007). Bill Clinton’s “new partnership” anecdote: Toward a post-Cold War foreign policy rhetoric. Journal of Language & Politics, 6, 303-325.

Falk, E. (2009). Press, passion, and Portsmouth: Narratives about "crying" on the campaign trail. Argumentation and Advocacy, 46, 51-63.

Fernandez, D. G. (1994). Whitewater, Troopergate and the media. Editor and Publisher, 12, 16-18.

Fine, G. A., & Eisenberg, E. (2002). Tricky Dick and Slick Willy: Despised presidents and generational imprinting. American Behavioral Scientist, 46, 553-565.

Getz, D. C. (1994). Rhetoric and ritual in the Arkansas inaugural addresses. In S. A. Smith (Ed.), Bill Clinton on stump, state, and stage: The Rhetorical road to the White House (pp. 23-51). Fayetteville, AR: University of Arkansas Press.

Glinert, L. (1999). Apologizing to the nation. American Communication Journal 2.2, http://acjournal.org/holdings/vol2/Iss2/editorials/glinert/index.html.

Golden, J. L. (2001). The Clinton factor in the presidential contest of 2000. American Behavioral Scientist, 44, 2269-2287.

Goodnight, G. Thomas, and Kathryn M. Olson. "Shared Power, Foreign Policy, and Haiti, 1994: Public Memories of War and Race." Rhetoric & Public Affairs 9/4 (2006): 601-634.

Gronbeck, B. E. (1999). Underestimating generic expectations: Clinton's apologies of August 17, 1998. American Communication Journal 2.2, http://acjournal.org/holdings/vol2/Iss2/editorials/gronbeck/index.html.

Hacker, K. L. (1996). Virtual democracy: A critique of the Clinton administration citizen-White House electronic mail system. In R. E. Denton, and R. L. Holloway (Eds.). The Clinton presidency: Images, issues, and communication strategies (pp. 43-76) . Westport, CT: Praeger.

Halmari, H. (2008). On the language of the Clinton-Dole presidential campaign debates: General tendencies and successful strategies. Journal of Language & Politics, 7 247-270.

Han, L. C. (2006). New Strategies for an Old Medium: The Weekly Radio Addresses of Reagan and Clinton. Congress & the Presidency, 33, 25-45.

Hillygus, D. S., Jackman, S. (2003). Voter decision making in election 2000: Campaign effects, partisan activation, and the Clinton legacy. American Journal of Political Science. 47, 583-.

Holenberg, J. (1998). Reelecting Bill Clinton: Why America chose a 'New' democrat. Syracuse Univ. Press.

Holloway, R. L. "Taking the Middle Ground: Clinton's Rhetoric of Conjoined Values." The 1996 Presidential Campaign: A Communication Perspective. Ed. Robert E. Denton. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1998. 123-141.

Holloway, R. L. (1996). The Clintons and the health care crisis: Opportunity lost, promise unfulfilled. In R. E. Denton, and R. L. Holloway (Eds.). The Clinton presidency: Images, issues, and communication strategies (pp. 159-187). Westport, CT: Praeger.

Hogan, J. M. (1999). Public opinion and journalistic voyeurism: The lesson of the Clinton apology. American Communication Journal 2.2,
http://acjournal.org/holdings/vol2/Iss2/editorials/hogan/index.html

Jamieson, K. H., Falk, E., & Scherr, S. (1999). The enthymeme gap in the 1996 presidential campaign." PS: Political Science and Politics, 32, 12-16.

Kagay, M. R. (1999). Public opinion and polling during presidential scandal and impeachment. Public Opinion Quarterly, 63, 449-463.

Kahl, M. LO., & Leff, M. (2006), The Rhetoric of war and remembrance: An analysis of President Bill Clinton's 1994 D-Day discourses. Qualitative Research Reports in Communication, 7. 15-21.

Kaid. L. L. (1997). Effects of the television spots on image of Dole and Clinton. American Behavioral Scientist, 40. 1085-1094.

Kaid, L. L., Tedesco, J., Chanslor, M, & Roper, C. (1994). Clinton’s videostyle: A study of the verbal, nonverbal, and video production techniques in campaign advertising. Journal of Communication Studies, 12, 11-20.

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Obama, Barack, 2009-2016

Amsden, Brian. "Dimensions of Temporality in President Obama's Tucson Memorial Address." Rhetoric & Public Affairs 17/3 (2014): 455-476. Arnett, R. C. (2011). Civic rhetoric—Meeting the communal interplay of the provincial and the cosmopolitan: Barack Obama’s Notre Dame Speech, May 17, 2009. Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 14, 631–672.

Arduser, L., & Koerber, A. (2014). Splitting women, producing biocitizens, and vilifying Obamacare in the 2012 presidential campaign. Women's Studies in Communication, 37, 117-137.

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Bostdorff, D. M. (2017). Obama, Trump, and the reflections on the rhetoric of political change. Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 20, 695-706.

Cisneros, J. David. "A Nation of Immigrants and a Nation of Laws: Race, Multiculturalism, and Neoliberal Exception in Barack Obama's Immigration Discourse." Communication, Culture & Critique 8, no. 3 (September 2015):

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Cram, T. (2017). "An Open Door": Responsibility and the comic frame in Obama's foreign policy rhetoric on Iran. Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 20, 69-108.

Crosby, R. B. (2015). Toward a practical, civic piety: Mitt Romney, Barack Obama, and the race for national Priest. Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 18, 301-330.

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Devos, T., & Debbie S. Ma, D. S. (2013). How "American" is Barack Obama? The Role of national identity in a historic bid for the White House. Journal of Applied Social Psychology 43, 214–226.

James Darsey (2009). “Barack Obama and America’s Journey,” Southern Communication Journal, 74, 88–103.

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Garvey, T. (2011). The Obama administration's evolving approach to the signing statement. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 41, 393-407.

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Gunn, J. (2010). On speech and public release. Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 13, 1–42. (Hillary Clinton and Barack Obama).

Kephart, J. M., III, & Rafferty, S. F. (2009). "Yes We Can" Rhizomic rhetorical agency in hyper-modern campaign ecologies. Argumentation and Advocacy, 46, 6-20.

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Harris, M. R., & Hall, A. R. (2018). "My Living Shall Not Be in Vain": The rhetorical power of eulogies in the face of civil unrest. Journal of Contemporary Rhetoric, 8, 173-183.

Hill, T. E. (2017) Sanitizing the Struggle: Barack Obama, Selma, and Civil Rights memory. Communication Quarterly, 65, 354-376.

Ivie, R. L. (2011). Obama at West Point: A study in ambiguity of purpose. Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 14, 727–760.

Leeman, R. W. (2012). The teleological discourse of Barack Obama. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.

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John M. Murphy (2011). “Barack Obama, the Exodus Tradition, and the Joshua Generation,” Quarterly Journal of Speech, 97, 387–410.

Myers, Bess R. H. (2018). Barack Obama, "Remarks by the President at a memorial service for the victims of the shooting in Tucson, Arizona" (12 January 2011). Voice of Democracy, 13, 24-36.

Ohl, J. J. (2017), In pursuit of Light War in Libya: Kairotic justifications of war that just happened. Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 20, 195-222.

Partlow-Lefevre, S. T. (2015). Obama on the Affriormative: Sequester arguments as policy debate. In C. H. Palczewski, Ed., Disturbing argument (pp. 35-41). Routledge, New York.

Perry, Samuel. "Barack Obama, Civil Mourning, and Prudence in Presidential Rhetoric." Howard Journal Of Communications 28, no. 2 (April 2017): 160-173.

Rhodes, J., & Hlavacik, M. (2015). Imagining moral presidential speech: Barack Obama's Niebuhrian Nobel. Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 18, 471-503.

Rowland, R. C. (2011). Barack Obama and the revitalization of public reason. Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 14, 693–726.

Rowland, R. C., & Jones, J. M. (2011). One dream: Barack Obama, race, and the American Dream. Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 14, 125–154.

Rowland, R. C., & Jones, J. (2007). Recasting the American Dream and American politics: Barack Obama's keynote address to the 2004 Democratic National Convention. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 93, 425-448.

Sparks, A. (2009). Minstrel politics or "He speaks too well:" Rhetoric, race, and resistance in the 2008 presidential campaign. Argumentation and Advocacy, 46, 21-38.

Steudeman, M. J. (2013). Entelechy And irony in political time: The preemptive rhetoric of Nixon and Obama. Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 16, 59 – 96.

Stout, C. T., & Lep, D. (2017). Traiting places: Race and the evaluation of Black and White presidential candidates. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 47, 311–335.

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Tell, D. (2014). The Exodus as burden: Obama, agency, and the containment thesis. In Rhetoric of heroic expectations: Establishing the Obama Presidency, (pp; 191-208. Ed. J. S. Vaughn and J. R.Mercieca, College Station, TX: Texas A&MUniversity Press.

Terrill, R. E. (2015). Double-consciousness and the rhetoric of Barack Obama: The price and promise of citizenship (Columbia, SC: The University of South Carolina Press, 2015).

Terrill, R. E. (2011). An uneasy peace: Barack Obama’s Nobel Peace Prize lecture. Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 14, 761–780.

Terrill, Robert E. "Unity and Duality in Barack Obama's 'A More Perfect Union'." Quarterly Journal of Speech, 95 (2009): 363-386.

Vaughn, J. S., & Mercieca, J. R. (Eds.) (2014). The rhetoric of heroic expectations: Establishing the Obama presidency. College Station: Texas A&M University Press.

Voina, A. (2017). Feminist rhetoric and Barack Obama and Hillary Clinton's discourse. PCTS Proceedings (Professional Communication& Translation Studies), 10,

Walsh-Haines, G (2016). Barack Obama and hate crime legislation: The Matthew Shepard and James Byrd, Jr Hate Crimes Preservation Act. In The Bully Pulpit, presidential speeches, and the shaping of public policy. Eds. J. S. Ashley and M. J. Jarmer (233-243), Lexington Books.

Franklin Pierce, 1853-1857

Hartnett, S. J. (2008). Franklin Pierce and the Exuberant Hauture of an age of extremes: A love song for America in six movements. In M. J. Medhurst (Ed.), Before the rhetorical presidency (pp. 106-165). College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press.

Polk, James K., 1845-1849

Campbell, K. K. (2008). James Knox Polk: The first imperial president? In M. J. Medhurst (Ed.), Before the rhetorical presidency (pp. 83-105). College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press.

Greenstein, F. I. (2010). The policy-driven leadership of James K. Polk: Making the most of a weak presidency. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 40, 725-533.

Reagan, Ronald, 1981-1989. See The Rhetorical Reagan.

Sources for Ronald Reagan's rhetoric here.

Roosevelt, Franklin D., 1933-1945.

Franklin Delano Roosevelt Presidential Library and Museum. Web. 10 Jun 2014.

Aoki, K. (2006). A study of Franklin Delano Roosevelt's persuasive communication within the Fireside Chat: An analysis of language and style. Human Communication Research, , 72-81.

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Bisbee, D. (2018). Driving the three-horse team of government: Kairos in FDR's Judiciary Fireside Chat. Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 21. 481-521.

Blankfield, B. (2016). "A Symbol of His Warmth and Humanity: Fala, Roosevelt, and the personable presidency. Rhetoric & Public Affairs, 19, 209-243/

Braden, Waldo W., and Earnest Brandenburg. "Roosevelt's Fireside Chats." Communication Monographs 22 (1955): 290-302.

Brandenburg, Earnest. "The Preparation of Franklin D. Roosevelt's Speeches." Quarterly Journal of Speech 35 (1949): 214-221.

Brandenburg, Earnest, and Waldo W. Braden. "Franklin D. Roosevelt's Voice and Pronunciation." Quarterly Journal of Speech 38 (1952): 23-30.

Carson, Herbert L. "Reply to Infamy." Communication Quarterly 10 (1962): 5-6.

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Crowell, Laura. "Building the "Four Freedoms" Speech." Communication Monographs 22 (1952): 266-283.

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Daughton, Suzanne M. "Metaphorical Transcendence: Images of the Holy War in Franklin Roosevelt's First Inaugural." Quarterly Journal of Speech 79 (1993): 427-46. Web. 1 May 2015.

Frederick, R. G (2016). Franklin D Roosevelt and the inauguration of the new deal. In The Bully Pulpit, presidential speeches, and the shaping of public policy. Eds. J. S. Ashley and M. J. Jarmer (81-91), Lexington Books.

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Hasian, M. (2003). Franklin D. Roosevelt, The Holocaust, and modernity's rescue rhetorics. Communication Quarterly, 51 154-173.

Houck, Davis W. F. D. R. and Fear Itself: The First Inaugural Address. College Station: Texas A&M UP, 2002.

—-. Rhetoric as Currency: Hoover, Roosevelt, and the Great Depression. College Station: Texas A&M UP, 2001.

Houck, Davis W., and Amos Kiewe. F. D. R.'s Body Politics: The Rhetoric of Disability. College Station: Texas A&M UP, 2003.

King, Robert D. "Franklin D. Roosevelt's Second Inaugural Address." Quarterly Journal of Speech 23 (1937): 439-444.

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