Aristotle: "I call a rhetorical syllogism an enthymeme" (Rhetoric I.8, 1356b)


There is a good example of an unstated premise in Eleanor Roosevelt's address on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights:

We in the United States admire those who fight for their convictions, and the Soviet delegation has fought for their convictions. But in the older democracies we have learned that sometimes we bow to the will of the majority. In doing that, we do not give up our convictions. We continue sometimes to persuade, and eventually we may be successful. But we know that we have to work together and we have to progress. So, we believe that when we have made a good fight, and the majority is against us, it is perhaps better tactics to try to cooperate.

In this example, there is an implied syllogism: "Americans admire those who fight for their convictions. The Soviet delegation has fought for their convictions. Therefore we Americans admire the Soviets." The next argument then follows: "Older democracies have learned to bow to the majority. The Soviets have not bowed to the majority. Therefore they have not learned what the older democracies have learned." In the first argument the unexpressed element is actually the conclusion. In the second argument, both the minor premise and the conclusion are left to the audience to infer. Stating it outright would of course have been an open criticism of the Soviets' ability to do diplomacy in a democratic frame.

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